了解美国的价值观, 了解对美国人重要的东西. 了解美国人重视独立的原因, 平等, 和准时. 你会明白为什么美国人是直接和非正式的, 为什么竞争, 职业道德, 买东西在美国都很重要.
Understand American values and learn about what is important to Americans. Read why Americans value independence, equality, and being on time. You will see why Americans are direct and informal and why competition, work ethic, and buying things are all important in the USA.
What are American values?
在贵国, 你可能有强烈的传统和文化, 你看重. 在美国, 也有重要的美国价值观. 这些是对美国人最重要的事情.
In your country, you probably had strong traditions and culture that you valued. In the United States, there are also important American values. These are the things that are most important to Americans.
在美国的主要价值观之一就是独立. 独立有时被称为个人主义. 美国人非常自豪的自力更生，何以, 或者是能够照顾自己, 和他们倾向于认为别人应该自力更生以及. 当一个人达到目标, 这通常被认为是他或她自己的辛勤工作的结果. 这是不同的比在许多其他文化是更集体. 集体文化往往视成绩为整个家庭或社区的反映.
One of the main values in the United States is independence. Independence is sometimes referred to as individualism. Americans are very proud of being self-reliant, or being able to take care of themselves, and they tend to think others should be self-reliant as well. When someone reaches a goal, that is typically seen as the result of his or her own hard work. This is different than in many other cultures which are more collective. Collective cultures tend to see accomplishments as a reflection of an entire family or community.
Here is an example of how Americans value independence:
- 美国儿童倾向于离开家早于其他文化. 举个例子, 高中毕业之后, 很多孩子搬出去，去读大学或开始工作. 如果他们继续住在家里, 他们可能会要求支付租金或贡献的房子.
- American children tend to leave the home earlier than in other cultures. For example, after graduating high school, many children move out to go to college or start working. If they continued to live at home, they might be asked to pay rent or contribute to the house.
- Americans expect anyone who is able to work to do so in order to support themselves.
美国人看重隐私和自己的空间. 而在一些文化中想要隐私可能被视为一件坏事, 许多美国人想要独处的时间，可能是私人某些话题.
Americans value privacy and their own space. While in some cultures wanting privacy may be seen as a bad thing, many Americans like to have alone time and may be private about certain topics.
Here are a few situations related to the American value of privacy:
- 在对话中, 许多美国人都是私有的某些东西，不想谈论他们, 比如，他们的年龄, 他们赚多少钱, 或他们的政治, 性和宗教观点. 有些人不喜欢谈论这些在公共场合的科目，因为他们担心它会导致人们认为. 然而, 如果您有关于这些主题的问题, 你可以问我们. 大多数美国人会很乐意教你关于美国人对世界的看法.
- 美国人经常给彼此更多的空间，在公开场合比其他文化背景的人. 他们倾向于站在一起有点它们之间的空间, 通常的伸出来的膀臂的距离.
- 许多美国人有篱笆房前屋后，确保他们有隐私. 如果你的孩子失去一个球或其他玩具邻居的篱笆, 它通常是一个坏主意来跳过篱笆和检索的玩具. 相反, 转到前门，敲门或铃. 如果有没有答案在门上留了张便条, 请求允许检索之间 8 上午和 8 下午玩具. 这是尊重和安全, 因为有些人有看门狗，或可能是很好的保护他们的隐私. 特别是长老通常需要更多的平静，和可能不想被打扰. 如果你打开一扇门，你必须关闭它. 然而, 如果你来到一个打开的门, 使它保持打开状态.
- 卧室通常被认为是私人空间. 在厨房里接待的邻居和朋友, 餐厅或客厅. 父母和儿童往往有自己的卧室, 和常, 美国孩子们都有自己的卧室.
- In conversations, many Americans are private about certain things and do not want to talk about them, such as their age, how much money they make, or their political, sexual and religious views. Some people do not like talking about these subjects in public because they are worried it will cause people to argue. However, if you have questions about these topics, you can ask us. Most Americans will be happy to teach you about how Americans view the world.
- Americans often give each other more space in public situations than people in other cultures. They tend to stand with a bit of space between them, typically the distance of an outstretched arm.
- Many Americans have fences around their houses to ensure they have privacy. If your children lose a ball or other toy over a neighbor’s fence, it is generally a bad idea to jump over the fence and retrieve the toy. Instead, go to the front door and knock or ring the bell. If there is no answer leave a note on the door, asking permission to retrieve the toy between 8am and 8pm. This is both respectful and safe, as some people have guard dogs or may be very protective of their privacy. Elders in particular typically need more peace and quiet and may not want to be disturbed. If you open a gate you must close it. However, if you come to an open gate, leave it open.
- Bedrooms are usually considered private spaces. Neighbors and friends are entertained in the kitchen, dining room or living room. Parents and children tend to have their own bedrooms, and often, American children each have their own bedrooms.
Those are just some examples of privacy that may be different in your culture.
美国人往往很直接. 这意味着他们经常告诉你他们的想法，他们将自信他们想要什么. 自信是通常被视为一件好事在美国.
Americans are often very direct. This means they often tell you what they think and they will be assertive about what they want. Being assertive is generally seen as a good thing in America.
Here are some examples of American-style directness:
- 在一些文化中, 它是不礼貌的拒绝的邀请 — — 例如, 如果有人问你吃午饭, 你可能会说是, 但不是去吃午饭. 在美国, 它几乎总是不如说, “没有, 但还是要谢谢你” 或, “谢谢, 但我有另一个承诺。” 如果你答应了邀请，但去不到的事件, 人会很生气.
- 在谈话中, 如果美国不同意你的意见, 他们可能会告诉你. 这并不意味着他们不喜欢你, 只是，他们可能会有不同的观点.
- 想法 “失面子” 不是美国的一样. 为翻译 “失面子” 将 “尴尬,” 这是不太严重. 美国可能会很尴尬，如果他们被批评或犯了一个错误, 举个例子. 所以美国人可能会指出错误或批评你, 只意图它作为校正或有用的信息.
- 在类中, 美国人可能挑战他们的老师’ 想法. 在一些文化中, 是你的老师不同意不礼貌的.
- 它是永远不会问的帮助是不礼貌. 如果朋友或邻居问你，如果你需要什么, 他们真的想要帮助. 自由的说, “如果你到店里去和你走过的橘子, 请把我捡起来一袋, 和我 ’ 我会给你报酬他们。” 或, 如果你需要冬天的衣服为例, 和你 ’ re 不知道哪里可以买到他们, 它是可以问这些问题, “你有在哪里我可以买便宜的上衣和靴子给我的孩子有没有什么建议吗?” 大多数美国人都喜欢帮助, 和需要很少鼓励成为好朋友和邻居.
- In some cultures, it is rude to decline an invitation – for example, if someone asks you for lunch, you may say yes, but then not go to lunch. In America, it is almost always better to say, “No, but thank you” or, “Thank you, but I have another commitment.” If you say yes to an invitation but do not go to the event, the person might get upset.
- In conversation, if an American disagrees with your opinion, they might tell you. This does not mean they do not like you, just that they may have a different idea.
- The idea of “losing face” is not the same in America. The translation for “losing face” would be “embarrassed,” which is less serious. Americans may be embarrassed if they are criticized or make a mistake, for example. So Americans may point out mistakes or criticize you, simply intending it as a correction or useful information.
- In classes, Americans may challenge their teachers’ ideas. In some cultures, it is impolite to disagree with your teacher.
- It is never is rude to ask for help. If a friend or neighbor asks you if you need anything, they truly want to help. Feel free to say, “If you are going to the store and you walk by the oranges, please pick me up a bag, and I’ll pay you for them.” Or, if you need winter clothes for example, and you’re not sure where to buy them, it is OK to ask, “Do you have any suggestions for where I can buy inexpensive coats and boots for my children?” Most Americans love to help, and need very little encouragement to become good friends and neighbors.
在一般情况下, 真好还记得什么可能显得粗鲁不是那种方式. 美国人不想无礼 — — 他们只被直接.
In general, it is good to remember that what may appear rude is not intended that way. Americans are not trying to be rude – they are just being direct.
美国的独立宣言 》 声明, “所有的人人生而平等。” 在现实生活中, 有些人在美国做不总是所有公民平等对待, 但许多美国人感触颇深， 理念 平等的. 在美国历史上，在那里所有的人不能平等对待等奴役的非洲裔美国人有很多例子 (黑色) 公民. 然而, 美国人愿意相信所有人都应都享有平等机会的想法. 这种想法是所谓的一部分 “美国梦。” 许多早期移民搬到美国，跟随美国梦. 他们认为，如果你工作努力, 你可以在社会向上.
The US Declaration of Independence declares, “All Men Are Created Equal.” In reality, some people in the United States do not always treat all citizens equally, but many Americans feel very strongly about the idea of equality. There are many examples in American history where all people were not treated equally such as slavery of African American (black) citizens. However, Americans like to believe the idea that all people should have equal opportunities. This idea is a part of what is called the “American Dream.” Many early immigrants moved to America to follow the American Dream. They believed that if you worked hard, you could move up in society.
今天，越来越多的人实现美国梦不是真的. 很多人非常努力工作的人并没有很多钱. 通常来自特权背景的人有更容易的时间动的世界. 仍, 平等的观念是美国文化的一个重要组成部分.
Today more and more people realize the American Dream is not true. Many people who work very hard do not have very much money. Often people who come from privileged backgrounds have an easier time moving up in the world. Still, the idea of equality is an important part of US culture.
Here are some examples of equality in American culture:
• 在法律的情况下, 所有美国人都应该一视同仁，所有美国人都有一个由一名律师代表权.
• In legal situations, all Americans should be treated equally and all Americans have a right to representation by a lawyer.
• 在教室里, 他们的老师应该平等对待所有学生. 学生不应该受到青睐.
• In a classroom, all students should be treated equally by their teachers. No student should be favored.
• 男人和女人应该同等对待, 男子未被视为在比女人好. 在现实生活中, 许多妇女仍然没有男人相同的地位在美国社会中, 特别是在多少钱他们可以使.
• Men and women should be treated equally, and men are not viewed as better than women. In reality, many women still do not have the same status as men in American society, especially in terms of how much money they can make.
• 在美国, 不是强烈嵌入式的社会层次结构或种姓制度. 有时您可能希望对你尊重的人可能会把你当作平等. 举个例子, 孩子的名字喊老年人. 如果这发生在你身上, 试着记住他们粗鲁无礼的不, 但他们有不同的文化价值.
• In America, there is not a strongly embedded social hierarchy or caste system. Sometimes people who you might expect to treat you with respect may treat you as an equal. For example, children may call an older adult by their first name. If this happens to you, try to remember they are not being rude, but they have a different cultural value.
• 有时候美国人会告诉你他们喜欢怎样加以介绍自己时. 如果教师或医生介绍了自己作为 “露西” 或 “医生露西”, 这就是你应该怎么称呼她. 如果她介绍自己作为博士. 威尔逊, 这就是她更喜欢被称为.
• Sometimes Americans will tell you how they prefer to be addressed when they introduce themselves. If a teacher or a doctor introduces herself as “Lucy” or “Doctor Lucy”, that is how you should address her. If she introduces herself as Dr. Wilson, that is what she prefers to be called.
它知道是很有用，也可能是看不见的阶层的人群. 这些倾向于将更多的基于个人的成功: 举个例子, 有人 ’ s 的工作, 财富, 或教育.
It is useful to know that there may still be invisible hierarchies among people. These tend to be based more on individual success: for example, someone’s job, wealth, or education.
American society is often informal and relaxed.
Here are some examples of how the United States is an informal culture:
• 美国人可能会穿的随意, 如穿牛仔裤或短裤，即使是在工作, 学校, 或教会. 当你第一次启动作业, 它是一个好主意，穿正式一点，然后选择你的衣着基于什么你周围的人都穿着.
• Americans may dress casually, such as wearing jeans or shorts even at work, school, or church. When you first start a job, it is a good idea to dress more formally and then to choose your attire based on what the people around you are wearing.
• 当别人打招呼, 美国人倾向于说, “你好” 或, “你好。” 您使用相同的问候语，不管你和谁说话: 你的儿子或你的儿子 ’ s 老师. 语言并没有正规和非正规形式的问候.
• When greeting someone, Americans tend to say, “Hi” or, “Hello.” You use the same greeting no matter who you are talking to: your son or your son’s teacher. The langauge does not have formal and informal forms of greeting.
• 美国人倾向于称呼对方的名字. 在某些情况下, 然而, 它是更好地以较为正式的直到你，请使用第一个名字 — — 例如使用姓氏, 在业务情况或学校.
• Americans tend to call each other by their first names. In some situations, however, it is better to be more formal and to use last names until you are asked to use a first name – for example, in a business situation or at school.
同时我们不拘礼节文化可能会给你个惊喜, 它不是粗鲁. 事实上, 如果有人向你问候非正式地，叫你的名字, 这可能意味着他们认为的你以友好的方式.
While the informality of US culture may surprise you, it is not meant to be rude. In fact, if someone greets you informally and calls you by your first name, it probably means they think of you in a friendly way.
美国人可以竞争和经常努力工作来实现自己的目标. 竞争往往导致美国人会很忙. 许多美国人认为竞争是好事.
Americans can be competitive and often work hard to achieve their goals. Competition often leads Americans to be very busy. Many Americans view competition is a good thing.
Here are some examples of the American value of competition:
• 商业竞争中是资本主义经济在很大程度归功. 美国的商业模式是以竞争为客户和最优惠的价格.
• Competition in business is due in large part to the capitalist economy. America’s business model is to compete for customers and for the best prices.
• 美国人会安排很多活动. 即使年幼的孩子参加许多课外活动, 如体育, 音乐欣赏课, 和志愿者. 有时你可能会觉得美国人 “跑跑颠颠” 与几乎没有时间放松. 但很多美国人感觉良好的时候会做很多.
• Americans will schedule lots of activities. Even young children participate in lots of activities outside of school, such as sports, music lessons, and volunteering. Sometimes you may feel like Americans are “rushing around” with little time for relaxing. But many Americans they feel good when they get a lot done.
• 竞争可以在学校里见过, 在工作场所, 和体育. 举个例子, 学生可能会努力工作，以取得最好的成绩. 有时竞争涉及群体, 例如一个足球队或学校研究组.
• Competition can be seen in school, in the workplace, and in sports. For example, students may work hard to achieve the best grades. Sometimes competition involves groups, such as a soccer team or a school study group.
• 美国人也可以 “竞争” 与自己. 许多美国人努力工作，不断提高他们都做了什么. 举个例子, 他们可能想要跑得比他们做最后一次，或者他们可能想要出售更多的项目，在他们的工作比前的一年一场比赛.
• Americans may also “compete” with themselves. Many Americans work hard to keep improving at what they do. For example, they may want to run a race faster than they did last time or they may want to sell more items at their job than they did the year before.
整体, 放在竞争的价值可能会导致您会感觉到一些文化冲击, 特别是如果你来自是比竞争更具协作性的文化.
Overall, the value placed on competition may cause you to feel some culture shock, especially if you came from a culture that is more collaborative than competitive.
Time and efficiency
美国人在他们的时间放置大量的价值. 美国人可能会感到沮丧，如果他们认为某人或某物已经浪费他们的时间. 一些美国人仔细规划出他们的时间, 使用每日日历为两个他们的个人生活和他们的工作生活. 还有一种说法在美国: 时间就是金钱. 这意味着很多美国人喜欢用他们的时间 “有效” — — 他们想要在最短的时间内完成.
Americans place a lot of value on their time. Americans may feel frustrated if they think someone or something has wasted their time. Some Americans plan out their time carefully, using daily calendars for both their personal lives and their work lives. There is a saying in America: time is money. This means many Americans like to use their time “efficiently” – they want to get the most done in the shortest amount of time.
这可能不同于你的习惯. 做一笔生意时, 你可能会花时间去了解另一个人, 也许喝喝茶还是喝咖啡时. 在美国, 这往往不是这样.
This may be different from what you are used to. When making a business deal, you may spend time getting to know the other person, maybe while drinking tea or coffee. In the United States, this is often not the case.
Here are some situations in which you might want to be aware of time:
- 会议, 尤其是为工作: 你应该试着要准时 – 或许甚至 5 提前分钟.
- 约会: 如果你有一位医生 ’ s 约会或某种其他类型的任命, 你需要按时到达. 你可能仍然必须等待任命. 然而, 它是重要的你是在时间上或您可能需要重新计划约会.
- 和朋友一起活动: 如果你被邀请到某人 ’ s 家吃晚饭, 试着要准时 – 你可以 5 或 10 迟到分钟, 但如果你是远远晚于，, 你可能应该打电话，让他们知道.
- 缔约方: 一个小型聚会, 在到达 15 分钟的时间给出. 与很多人的大聚会, 你可以 30 自 40 迟到分钟.
- Meetings, especially for work: You should try to be on time – probably even 5 minutes early.
- Appointments: If you have a doctor’s appointment or some other kind of appointment, you need to arrive on time. You may still have to wait for the appointment. However, it is important you are on time or you may have to reschedule the appointment.
- Activities with friends: If you are invited to someone’s house for dinner, try to be on time – you can be 5 or 10 minutes late, but if you are much later than that, you should probably call and let them know.
- Parties: For a small party, arrive within 15 minutes of the time given. For a large party with many people, you can be 30 to 40 minutes late.
好的规则是，任何时候你都要迟到, 你应该打电话，让你要见的人知道你要迟到了. 如果你可以 ’ t 调用, 你应该告诉对方你很抱歉来晚了，当你到达时.
A good rule is that anytime you are going to be late, you should call and let the person you are meeting know you will be late. If you can’t call, you should tell the person you are sorry for being late when you arrive.
有时, 你可能会觉得有人很快离开，或者是在匆匆忙忙地离开. 这可能是因为他们想要 “按时” 为其下一次的约会. 这并不意味着他们不喜欢你.
Sometimes, you may feel like someone is leaving very quickly or is in a hurry to leave. This may be because they want to be “on time” for their next appointment. It does not mean they do not like you.
在时间上和正在意识到时间是文化的差异，您可能需要适应，因为如果你迟到了, 你可以失去你的工作, 想念您的约会, 伤害别人或 ’ s 的感情. 如果你很难适应美国时间意识的, 你可能想要一个手表或电话已报警，提醒你的时间, 特别是对于上班.
Being on time and being aware of time is a cultural difference you will probably need to adapt to because if you are late, you could lose your job, miss your appointments, or hurt someone’s feelings. If you have a hard time adjusting to the American sense of time, you may want to get a watch or phone that has an alarm to remind you of the time, especially for getting to work.
美国人可以非常专注于他们的工作. 来自其他文化的人有时会认为美国人 “生活工作” 或者是 “工作狂。” 这意味着他们想得太多的美国人工作. 美国人是原因的以工作为导向一部分是原因的因为正忙着和活跃往往被视为一件好事. 人们也倾向于强烈认同他们的工作. 举个例子, 当你第一次遇到某人, 他们可能会问你的第一个问题是 “你是做什么工作的?” 他们的意思是, “你做什么样的工作?”
Americans can be very focused on their work. Sometimes people from other cultures think Americans “live-to-work” or are “workaholics.” This means they think Americans work too much. Part of the reason Americans are work-oriented is because being busy and active is often seen as a good thing. People also tend to identify strongly with their jobs. For example, when you first meet someone, one of the first questions they might ask you is “What do you do?” They mean, “What kind of work do you do?”
称自己为男人或女人在家里工作经常照顾家庭的人 “家庭主妇” 和受尊重的这种职业就像任何其他. 在填写任何种类的应用程序时, 它是可以写 “家庭主妇” 作为职业的人在家庭以外没有高薪的工作.
Men or women who work at home taking care of the family often call themselves “home-makers” and deserve respect for this occupation as much as any other. When filling out an application of any kind, it is OK to write “home-maker” as the occupation for someone who does not have a paying job outside the home.
作为美国新丁, 有时候你可能会想美国人似乎物质 — — 专注于拥有和买的东西. 部分的原因是很多美国人价值竞争和工作. 因为美国人的价值竞争, 他们想要的 “跟上” 与周围的人. 这意味着, 举个例子, 如果你的邻居有一辆新车, 你可能还想要一辆新车. 美国人叫这 “跟周围的人。”
As a newcomer to the United States, you may sometimes think Americans seem materialistic – focused on owning and buying things. Part of the reason for this is that many Americans value competition and work. Because Americans value competition, they want to “keep up” with those around them. This means, for example, if your neighbor got a new car, you might want a new car also. Americans call this “Keeping up with the Joneses.”
许多美国人值工作，有强烈的职业道德. 许多美国人查看物料如电视或鞋以此来表明他们是成功的工作. 美国人可能认为的物料作为他们的辛勤工作和努力的回报.
Many Americans value work and have a strong work ethic. Many Americans view material items such as TVs or shoes as a way to show they are successful at work. Americans may think of material items as rewards for their hard work and efforts.
美国人可能是面向对象的另一个原因是因为很多美国人的价值新奇和创新. 因此，即使他们有工作电话, 他们可能想要一部新手机，因为它具有新的和令人兴奋的功能. 你不必觉得你必须有很多的财产，应得到尊重. 你应该感到舒服的生活简单的或你喜欢的任何方式, 也许保存更多的钱，为紧急情况, 教育和退休，而不是对象，给别人留下印象的开支.
Another reason Americans may be object-oriented is because many Americans value newness and innovation. So even if they have a phone that works, they may want a new phone because it has new and exciting features. You do not have to feel you must have lots of possessions to be respected. You should feel comfortable living simply or any way you prefer, maybe saving more money for emergencies, education and retirement rather than spending on objects to impress others.
上面的语句都是美国价值观的推广. 概括并不总是正确, 但事情往往是真实. RCO 的目标是提供以帮助您更好地理解为什么美国可能表现为一种方式你的概括不明白. 记得, 既不是比其他方式 — — 只是不同.
All of the above statements are generalizations of American values. Generalizations are not always true, but things that are often true. The goal of the RCO is to provide generalizations to help you better understand why an American may be acting in a way you do not understand. Remember, neither way is better than the other way – just different.