Rakhine (Birma): Understanding your students from Rakhine State and their cultural backgrounds

Ingliz tili, shuningdek,Hech Ingliz tili

Rakhine qochqinlar talabalar: Madaniyat fon profillar

Rakhine refugee students: Cultural background profiles

turli talabalarga o'rgatish Ko'pchilik o'qituvchilar ular talabalarning yetarli madaniy fon ma'lumot olish yo'q, deb xabar. Agar qochoq talabalarga saboq bo'lsa, u yangi kelgan xabardor bo'lishi muhim ahamiyatga ega’ fon. Quyidagi ma'lumotlar asosiy diqqatga sazovor umumiy ta'minlash uchun mo'ljallangan, Bas, siz talabalar bilan hamohang bo'lgan madaniy javob o'quv strategiyalar ishlab chiqish’ noyob ta'lim turmagi.

Many educators teaching diverse students report that they do not receive enough cultural background information on their students. If you are teaching refugee students, it is important to be aware of newcomers’ backgrounds. The information below is meant to provide an overview of key highlights, so you develop culturally responsive teaching strategies that are in tune with your students’ unique learning styles.

Qochoqlar Foto
Qochoqlar Foto
Photo by UNHCR
Photo by UNHCR

Rakhin xaritasi

Rakhin Map

Birma (Myanma) azob fuqarolar urushi ega, 1950 yildan buyon siyosiy zulm va etnik to'qnashuvlar. Birma ustidan o'z ichiga oladi 100 turli etnik ozchilik guruhlar, Eng yaxshi ma'lum bo'lgan Burman bo'lish ba'zi bilan, Karen, Karenni, Kachin, Shan, Mon, va Rakhine / Rohingya. Rakhine va Rohingya Rakhine davlat yashaydi, Shuningdek, Arakan chaqirdi. Rohingya musulmon va Rakhine budda bor.

Burma (Myanmar) has suffered civil war, political oppression and ethnic conflict since the 1950s. Burma includes over 100 different ethnic minority groups, with some of the most well known being the Burman, Karen, Karenni, Kachin, Shan, Mon, and Rakhine/Rohingya. The Rakhine and Rohingya live in Rakhine state, also called Arakan. The Rohingya are Muslim and the Rakhine are Buddhist.

til

Language

Arakanese, uch lahjalarga o'z ichiga oladi: Sittwe-marma (Rakhine uchdan ikki qismi tomonidan og'zaki), Ramree, va Sandoway.

Arakanese, which includes three dialects: SittweMarma (spoken by two-thirds of Rakhine), Ramree, and Sandoway.

Sinf ta'lim

Teaching in the Classroom

Hukumat olib asosiy ta'lim maktablari orqali taqdim Formal ta'lim. Asosiy ta'lim maktab davom etadi 11 yil: 5 boshlang'ich maktab yil (Standard ga Bolalar bog'chasi 4) va 6 o'rta ta'lim yil. Talabalar oliy 16 yoki 17 yoshda.

Formal education provided through government-led Basic Education schools. Basic Education schooling lasts 11 years: 5 years of primary school (Kindergarten to Standard 4) and 6 years of secondary education. Students graduate at 16 or 17 years old.

Rakhine ta'lim tizimi juda e'tibordan chetda qolgan va har ikki boshlang'ich va o'rta maktab ishtirok etish uchun juda oz o'rinda bormoqda, shuningdek gender tenglik uchun, deb. ta'lim uchun umumiy to'siqlar eskirgan binolar, gavjum o'quv, o'qituvchilar etishmasligi, etarli inshootlari va ta'lim yo'qligi va o'rganish materiallari.

Rakhine’s education system is highly marginalized and ranks very poorly for both primary and secondary school attendance, as well as for gender parity. Common barriers to education are dilapidated buildings, overcrowded classrooms, shortage of teachers, inadequate facilities and the absence of teaching and learning materials.

Rakhine muqobil ta'lim muassasalari taklif etadi:

Rakhine offers alternative educational institutions:

  • uzoq joylarda yosh bolalar uchun o'zini-o'zi yordam maktablar
  • Qisqa muddatli asosiy savodxonlik ta'lim disklar bolalar va kattalar asosiy o'qish berishga harakat, yozuv va arifmetik ko'nikmalar.
  • asosiy kasbiy ta'lim va hayot ko'nikmalarini taklif o'smir joylar NNTlar qaramog'idagi
  • Ular xizmat sohalarida yosh bolalarga o'qish va hisoblash ta'lim taklif cherkovlar.
  • Self-help schools for younger children in remote areas
  • Short-term Basic Literacy Education drives try to give children and adults basic reading, writing and arithmetic skills.
  • NGO-run adolescent spaces offering basic vocational training and life skills
  • Churches offering literacy and numeracy teaching to younger children in the areas they serve.

Lekin uzoq tomonidan musulmon joylarda eng nufuzli ta'lim muassasalari hamjamiyat tomonidan moliyalashtiriladigan masjid maktablar bor, yoki madrasa. Ular har ikki jins, yosh bolalar uchun diniy ta'lim bilan ta'minlash, va asosan erkak, yoshlar uchun. Eng darslar diniy matnlarni yod va talqin haqida emas, balki savodxonligi yoki matematika haqida o'ylash. Madrasa, odatda, hukumat ta'lim tizimi bilan parallel ravishda o'rniga u bilan raqobat faoliyat, Hukumat maktab dasturlari bilan to'qnashuvlarni oldini olish maqsadida bag'ishlangan sinflar bilan. Musulmon ota-onalar kabi muhim va qimmatli emas, balki rasmiy ta'lim tizimi uchun afzal muqobil sifatida madrasalar ko'rish. ammo, hukumat maktablari mavjud bo'lmagan joylarda bolalar uchun, yoki ota-onalar ta'lim bilan bog'liq xarajatlarini bermoq uchun juda kam bo'lsa, madrasa o'z faqat ta'lim bilan ta'minlash.

But by far the most prominent educational institutions in Muslim areas are community-funded mosque schools, or madrasahs. They provide a religious education to younger children of both sexes, and to mostly male adolescents. Most lessons focus on memorizing and interpreting religious texts and not on literacy or numeracy. Madrasahs usually function in parallel with the government education system rather than in competition with it, with classes timed in order to avoid clashes with government school timetables. Muslim parents see madrasahs as important and valuable but not as a preferable alternative to the formal education system. However, for children in areas where government schools do not exist, or when parents are too poor to afford costs associated with education, madrasahs provide their only education.

Oila / Maktab Engagement

Family/School Engagement

Rakhine davlat, Rakhine odamlar o'rtasida, ayniqsa achchiq taranglik bor edi, Budda va davlat aholisining ko'pchiligini tashkil etadi kim, va musulmonlar, Rohingya asosan kim. Siz Rakhine dan oilalari bilan o'zaro qachon bu bo'l xabardor bo'lishi kerak bo'ladi.

In Rakhine state, there have been particularly bitter tensions between the Rakhine people, who are Buddhist and make up the majority of the state’s population, and Muslims, who are mostly Rohingya. You will need to be aware of this divide when interacting with families from Rakhine.

Birmadagi tajribali katta madaniy normalar ko'p Rakhine xalqidagi mumkin. Masalan, an'anaviy, Birma oila nomlari yo'q. Htay Maung ismli bir odam Cho Zin NWE va Tani Tut ismli bir Win İsv Myint nomidagi xotini va ikki farzandi bo'lishi mumkin. nomlari hech boshqalarga biron aloqasi bor; har bir emas. Birma G'arb mamlakatlarida shakllar to'ldirish uchun talab qilinadi qachon familiyalari yo'qligi muammolarni yaratadi.

Many of the larger cultural norms practiced in Burma can be found among the Rakhine people. For example, traditionally, Burmese do not have family names. A man named Htay Maung might have a wife named Win Swe Myint and two children named Cho Zin Nwe and Than Tut. None of the names has any relationship to the others; each is individual. The absence of surnames creates problems when Burmese are asked to fill in forms in Western countries.

Bundan tashqari, etnik Burman sizning sinfda o'quvchilar og'ir siyosiy quvg'inlar tajribali ota-onasi bo'lishi mumkin, Ular o'zlari AQShda tug'ilgan yoki ularning oila a'zolari AQSh kelganlarida juda yosh edi qilingan bo'lishi mumkin bo'lsa-da,. Birmadagi kattalar savodxonlik sur'atlari taxminan baholanmoqda 60%. ammo, AQShda Birma kattalar o'rtacha Burman ko'proq ma'lumotli bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan.

Furthermore, students in your classroom who are ethnically Burman may have parents who experienced severe political persecution, though they themselves may have been born in the US or been very young when their families came to the US. Literacy rates of adults in Burma are estimated at approximately 60%. However, Burmese adults in the US are likely to be more educated than the average Burman.

Bu ko'p qochqinlar haydovchi qanday bilaman yoki avtomobil foydalanish imkoniyatiga ega emas yo'q, deb yodda tutish muhim hisoblanadi, Bas, maktab voqealar transport ota-onalar ishtirok istagan bo'lsa ham, bir qiyinchilik bo'ladi.

It is important to keep in mind that many refugees do not know how to drive or lack access to a car, so transportation to school events will be a challenge even if parents want to be involved.

oqsoqollar hurmat muhimdir. Shunday qilib, yosh shaxslar shu xonada oqsoqol yanada yuqori darajada o'tirmanglar, na o'z oyoqlari oqsoqollar ishora bilan o'tirib, albatta,. oyoqlari tanasining kamida ezgu qismi sifatida hisoblanadi, va u sizning hurmat loyiq kishi tomon, ularni ishora nisbatan hurmatsizlik hisoblanadi. beringlar ham qo'llarini foydalaning, va biror narsa olish, Eskiroq shaxs.

Respect for elders is important. Thus, younger persons do not sit at a level higher than that of an elder in the same room, nor do they sit with their feet pointing at elders. The feet are regarded as the least noble part of the body, and it is disrespectful to point them toward someone deserving your respect. Use both hands to give something to, and receive something from, an older person.

boshiga odamlarga tegmanglar, tananing ma'naviy eng yuqori qismi hisoblanadi, qaysi.

Don’t touch people on the head, which is considered the spiritually highest part of the body.

Birma do'stlik hosil qadar himoyalangan bo'lishi moyil. yomon xulq va kambag'al tarbiya belgisidir kishining kayfiyatini bo'ladi yo'qotish.

Burmese tend to be reserved until friendships are formed. Losing one’s temper is a sign of bad manners and poor upbringing.

gender, madaniyat, va Oila

Gender, Culture, and Family

oila va jamiyat to'g'risidagi e'tibor va oqsoqollar va ota-bobolari uchun hurmat bor,. Umuman, erkaklar va oshkora muloqotda bo'lmagan ayollar. O'rnatilgan turmush qabul qilinadi. Kengaytirilgan oilalar bir uyda birga yashash, erkaklar eng hurmat buyurib bilan. Ayollar, ammo, Rakhine jamiyatda muhim rol o'ynaydi, ko'pincha oila uchun qaror qabul.

There is an emphasis on family and community and a respect for elders and ancestors. In general, men and women do not interact in public. Arranged marriages are acceptable. Extended families live together in one house, with men commanding the most respect. Women, however, play an important role in Rakhine society, often making decisions for the family.

madaniyat davomida o'ziga xos hind ta'siri bor,, uning oziq-ovqat nisbatan xususan, musiqa va adabiyot. Rakhine xalqi kech ertalab va erta kechqurun ularning ovqat bor. eng Myanma taomlari kabi, oydin ingredientlar qizil qalampir va ziravorlar foydalanish bilan ishlab chiqildi. Rays va sabzavotlar kun tartibi bo'lish istagi, ta'minlash imkonini beradi qachon go'sht va baliq bilan birga.

There is a distinctive Indian influence throughout the culture, in particular with regard to its food, music and literature. Rakhine people have their meals in the late morning and early evening. Like most Myanmar cuisine, plain ingredients are enhanced with the use of chilies and spices. Rice and vegetables tend to be the order of the day, along with meat and fish when supply allows.

Qo'shimcha manbalar

Additional Resources

BRYCS resurslari

BRYCS RESOURCES

WORLD hasratlarni o'z ichiga sig'dirolmas

WORLD FACTBOOK

qochoq BACKGROUNDERS

REFUGEE BACKGROUNDERS

SALOMATLIK

HEALTH

Birma AMERICANS

BURMESE AMERICANS

Sizning fikr almashish

Share Your Ideas

Agar Rakhine talabalarga o'rgatish bilan baham ko'rish uchun izoh yoki qo'shimcha ma'lumot yoki g'oyalar bo'lsa, elektron pochta iltimos: info@therefugeecenter.org.

If you have comments or additional information or ideas to share on teaching Rakhine students, please email: info@therefugeecenter.org.

O`qituvchilar uchun saboq olish

Take our Course for Educators

Agar qochqinlar va immigrant talabalarga ta'lim berish qanday qo'shimcha ta'lim olmoqchi bo'lsangiz, Bizning kurs yozilish iltimos, Muhojirlar va immigratsion talabalar ta'lim: O'qituvchilar uchun Online Kurs.

If you would like more training on how to educate refugee and immigrant students, please consider enrolling in our course, Educating Refugee and Immigrant Students: An Online Course for Teachers.

PDF sifatida bu ma'lumot chop

Print this Information as a PDF

Siz yuklab olish va bu chop etishingiz mumkin Rakhine talaba profili PDF sifatida va sinfda bir manba sifatida uni ushlab qolish.

You can download and print this Rakhine learner profile as a PDF and keep it as a resource in your classroom.

Bu sahifa sizga yordam edi? Kulgich ha qoshlarini yuzi yo'q
Fikr va mulohazalaringiz uchun rahmat!