bir xil madaniyat odamlar bilan aloqa hech bir yangi mamlakatda yashab bo'lgan har bir kishi uchun muhim bir vazifadir. qochoq sifatida, Agar mamlakatni tark etishga majbur qilingan, va Qo'shma Shtatlarda yaxshi muloqot uchun qanday o'rganish kerak. Bu erda xoch-madaniy aloqa haqida eslash ba'zi narsalar.
Communication with people from a different culture is a major challenge for anyone who has ever lived in a new country. As a refugee, you have been forced to leave your country, and you need to learn how to communicate well in the United States. Here are some things to remember about cross-cultural communication.
Agar xoch-madaniy muloqot qachon siz qilishingiz mumkin, eng muhim narsalardan biri siz biron-bir muammo, shuningdek, madaniy xilma-sabab bo'lishi mumkin, deb eslash emas. kimdir qo'pol paydo bo'lsa yoki degani - ijobiy bo'lishi uchun eng yaxshi harakat, Bu faraz o'rniga madaniy farqni ehtimol tufayli bo'lsa o'zingizdan so'rang, ular yaxshi emas.
One of the most important things you can do when you are communicating cross-culturally is to remember that any problems you have may well be caused by cultural differences. Try your best to be positive – if someone appears rude or mean, ask yourself if it is perhaps due to a cultural difference instead of assuming they are not nice.
Agar sizga aytilgan narsa anglamaydilar bo'lsa, Ular aytgan so'zimni takrorlashni shaxsni so'rang. Yoki yana shunchaki yana aytish ulardan so'rab. berib Qo'rqma.
If you don’t understand something that is said to you, ask the person to repeat what they said. Or ask them to say it again more simply. Do not be afraid to keep asking.
Eng amerikaliklar o'z og'irligi haqida gapirish yoqtirmayman, ularning yoshi, yoki qancha pul ular. Agar kimningdir og'irligi haqida biror narsa desangiz, Qanday eski ular, yoki qanday boy yoki kambag'al, ular, ular xafa bo'lishi mumkin.
Most Americans do not like to talk about their weight, their age, or how much money they make. If you say something about someone’s weight, how old they are, or how rich or poor they are, they might be upset.
Odamlar ham, ular yer yoki qaerda, ular yashayotgan qaerda sizga aytib bermoqchiman mumkin emas. Agar kimnidir so'rasang, “Qayerga ketyapsiz?” Ular siz yomon niyat bor, deb o'ylayman mumkin.
People also may not want to tell you where they are going or where they live. If you ask someone, “Where are you going?” they may think you have a bad intention.
Tadqiqotchilar aloqa muammoni bo'lmasdan haqida gapirish oson, ba'zi mavzular bor topdik. madaniyatlar o'rtasidagi mushtarak sohalarda bolalar va sport bor. Agar kishi bilan gaplashib, bir qattiq vaqt bo'lgan bo'lsa, Agar siz bu mavzular haqida gapirish harakat qilib ko'rishingiz mumkin.
Researchers have found there are some topics that are easier to talk about without having a communication problem. Common areas across cultures are children and sports. If you are having a hard time talking to someone, you can try to talk about these topics.
Iltimos, va rahmat
Please and thank you
ikkinchi til sifatida ingliz
English as a second language
Tadqiqot yangi tilni o'rganish uchun eng yaxshi yo'llaridan biri unga o'zingizni va birinchi unga tinglash ko'rsatadi. tinglang va ko'p Agar iloji ingliz amaliyot uchun harakat qilib ko'ring. talaffuz, yoki to'g'ri so'zlarni aytib, Yangi til o'rganish eng qiyin qismlarga biri. Sizning ovoz va so'zlar sizga nazar ham ta'kidlash. Agar to'g'ri narsa deb, chunki Siz g'azablansa his mumkin, lekin amerikaliklar sizni tushuna olmaydi. Barcha amerikaliklar tashqi Urg'u uchun ishlatiladi emas.
Research shows one of the best ways to learn a new language is to immerse yourself in it and to listen to it first. Try to listen and practice English as much as you can. Pronunciation, or saying things correctly, is one of the most difficult parts of learning a new language. Your tone and which words you emphasize also matter. You might feel frustrated because you are saying something correctly, but Americans cannot understand you. Not all Americans are used to foreign accents.
Biz boshqa odamlar bilan suhbat bo'lsa, Biz ikki jihatdan muloqot: so'z va sözsüz xatti bilan foydalanish. Sözsüz xulq biz muloqot qilish bizning tana foydalanish yo'lidir. Bu yuz ifodalarini o'z ichiga oladi, Imo-ishoralar, ko'z bilan aloqa, holat va ovozli tovush.
When we are in a conversation with other people, we communicate in two important ways: using words and with nonverbal behavior. Nonverbal behavior is the way we use our body to communicate. It includes facial expressions, gestures, eye contact, posture and tone of voice.
Ba'zi odamlar tana tilida muloqot deymiz haqiqiy so'z ko'ra ko'proq muhim deb o'ylayman. Bu ular kabi va ishonch boshqalar bo'lsa, odamlar qaror beradi.
Some people think nonverbal communication is more important than the actual words we say. It helps people decide if they like and trust others.
Turli madaniyatlar Sözsüz aloqa har xil turlaridan foydalanishi. Bu erda yo'llar ba'zi amerikaliklar sözsüz axborot vositalari foydalanish bor:
Different cultures use different types of nonverbal communication. Here are some of the ways Americans use nonverbal communication:
ko'z bilan aloqa
Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarida Odamlar uchun o'qitiladigan “turmoq” ularning e'tiqodlari uchun. kimdir sizga qo'shilmasa Bu degani, ular nuqtasini isbotlash uchun, sizlar bilan tortishishni mumkin. Agar qadrlaydi bir madaniyat kelgan bo'lsa, bu juda noqulay bo'lishi mumkin “yuzini tejash.” Ba'zi mamlakatlarda, argument olish siz yuzini yo'qotgan bo'lishi mumkin.
People in the United States are taught to “stand up” for their beliefs. This means if someone disagrees with you, they may argue with you to try to prove their point. This can be very uncomfortable if you come from a culture that values “saving face.” In some countries, getting into an argument may mean you have lost face.
Amerikaliklar g'azab yoki g'azotga chiqib emas, balki bahslasha, lekin ular to'g'ri iymon nima sizga ko'rsatish uchun. Arguing is generally accepted as part of the conversation, Agar juda baland ovoz bilan gapirgan ekan, (baqiriq) yoki yomon yoki qo'pol til yordamida. Talabalar o'qituvchilar norozi qilish uchun da'vat ham ruxsat va. Bolalar o'z ota-onalari bilan bahslasha mumkin. Ishchilar o'z tanishlar bilan qo'shilmayman mumkin, lekin muloyimlik.
Americans argue not out of anger or to fight, but to show you why they believe they are correct. Arguing is generally accepted as part of the conversation, unless you are speaking very loudly (screaming) or using bad or rude language. Students are allowed and even encouraged to disagree with their teachers. Children may argue with their parents. Workers can disagree with their bosses, but politely.
ba'zan, ayniqsa, AQSh siyosatida, Odamlar hech narsa amalga mumkin, shunday qilib, ko'p bahslasha. Bir mashhur professor, Dobira Tannen, ikki tomon o'rtasida bir argument sifatida bajarilishi uchun kerak hech narsa yaqinlashib uchun amerikaliklar tanqid. Agar argument noqulay his bo'lsa, Agar qulay bahslasharlar his yo'q, deb tushuntirish uchun okay bo'ladi. ammo, Agar ular norozi odamlar aytib o'rganish kerak bo'ladi yoki boshqa ular aytayotgan narsalarga siz rozi, deb o'ylashingiz mumkin.
Sometimes, especially in US politics, people argue so much that nothing can get done. One famous professor, Deborah Tannen, criticizes Americans for approaching anything that needs to get done as an argument between two sides. If you feel uncomfortable in an argument, it is okay to explain that you do not feel comfortable arguing. However, you may need to learn to tell people that you disagree with them or else they might think you agree with what they say.
Agar yangi madaniyatiga sozlash paytida juda qiyin bo'lishi mumkin aloqa biri qismi hazil emas. Siz odamlar atrofida tushunish emas, deb bir hazil qilish mumkin. Yoki kimdir Aql yo'q, deb bir hazil qilish mumkin. hazil madaniy, chunki, Ba'zan hazil tushunish bo'lsa ham, Agar u kulgili deb o'ylayman mumkin emas.
One part of communication that can be very hard when you are adjusting to a new culture is humor. You might make a joke that people around do not understand. Or someone might make a joke that you do not understand. Since humor is cultural, sometimes even if you understand the joke, you might not think it is funny.
Shartnomalar va bitimlar
Contracts and agreements
AQShda, written contracts and verbal agreements are important legal and in relationships.
In the US, written contracts and verbal agreements are important legal and in relationships.
Bitimlar odatda og'zaki bo'ladi. Masalan, kimdir biror narsa qilish so'raydi mumkin va siz ha deb, yoki yo'q,. Bu bitim. Amerikada, og'zaki bitimlar odatda juda jiddiy qabul qilingan. ba'zan, Agar og'zaki kelishuvga qilganingizda, siz ham qo'l berib mumkin. qo'l berib siz ikkala shartnomani bajarish uchun boryapmiz ramzidir.
Agreements are typically verbal. For example, someone may ask you to do something and you say yes or no. This is an agreement. In America, verbal agreements are generally taken very seriously. Sometimes, when you make a verbal agreement, you may also shake hands. Shaking hands is a symbol that you are both going to fulfill the agreement.
One problem with verbal agreements is that sometimes people can misunderstand. Masalan, you may make a verbal agreement with someone that you will meet them at 5 pm that day. lekin, balki ular noto'g'ri talqin va keyingi kun degan ma'noni o'yladi.
One problem with verbal agreements is that sometimes people can misunderstand. For example, you may make a verbal agreement with someone that you will meet them at 5 pm that day. But, maybe they misunderstood and thought you meant the next day.
Agar biror narsa rozi bo'lsa, Agar yo bu shartnomani bajarish yoki siz ularni siz bitimni bajarish mumkin emas xabar bering, amerikaliklar uchun muhim ahamiyatga ega. Hatto kichik bir narsa uchun,. Masalan, kimdir sizga so'rasa tushlik va ha aytish, yoki tushlik uchun borish kerak yoki ularni qo'ng'iroq va tushlik uchun vaqt oldin sizlar bora olmaysizlar aytib kerak.
If you agree to something, it is important to Americans that you either fulfill that agreement or that you let them know you can’t complete the agreement. Even for something small. For example, if someone asks you to have lunch and you say yes, you should either go to lunch or you should call them and tell them you can’t come before it is time for the lunch.
Shartnomalar qanday ikki davlat shartnomalar yozilgan (yoki undan ko'p) Odamlar rozi. Agar kvartirasiga ko'chib qachon bir ijara imzo. Agar ishini boshlash, Agar mehnat shartnomasini qabul qilishingiz mumkin. Agar kreditga mashina sotib olish bo'lsa, Agar kredit shartnomasini imzolash mumkin. Bularning barchasi sözleşmelerdir.
Contracts are written agreements that state what two (or more) people agree to. When you move into an apartment you sign a lease. When you start a job, you may receive an employment contract. If you buy a car on credit, you might sign a loan agreement. All of these are contracts.
Agar shartnoma imzo bo'lsa, Agar, ehtimol, bu shartnoma bajarish uchun huquqiy shart. Bas, u sizga diqqat bilan o'qib juda muhimdir. shartnoma ingliz tilida bo'lsa, Agar uni tarjima yordam so'rash mumkin. oddiy shartnoma uchun, Agar do'st so'rashingiz mumkin yoki email@example.com elektron pochta mumkin va biz siz shartnoma tushunishga yordam berishga harakat qiladi. u pul taalluqli bo'lsa, ish, yoki yuridik xizmatlar, Agar professional tarjimon foydalanish yoki maslahat uchun caseworker so'rashlari mumkin.
If you sign a contract, you probably have a legal obligation to fulfill that contract. So it is very important that you read it carefully. If the contract is in English, you may want to ask for help translating it. For a simple contract, you can ask a friend or you can email firstname.lastname@example.org and we will try to help you understand the contract. If it concerns money, work, or legal services, you may want to use a professional translator or ask your caseworker for advice.