Mawasiliano katika Marekani
Mawasiliano ni jinsi tunaweza kushiriki habari na mawazo na watu wengine. Tunafanya hivyo kwa kusema, kwa kuandika, na hata na mikono yetu, uso, na mwili. Katika nchi mpya, Tunahitaji kujifunza njia mpya za kuwasiliana. Hapa ni baadhi ya vidokezo ili kukusaidia kuwasiliana katika Marekani.
Communication is how we share information and ideas with other people. We do it by speaking, by writing, and even with our hands, face, and body. In a new country, we need to learn new ways of communicating. Here are some tips to help you communicate in the USA.
Katika miezi yako kwanza katika Marekani, kutakuwa na mara nyingi wakati si kuelewa watu na hali. Hii ni vigumu sana, lakini pia ni kawaida. Jaribu kukata tamaa! Mawasiliano kupata bora na wakati. Kupata kutumika kwa utamaduni mpya na kuanza kuelewa lugha ya.
During your first months in the USA, there will be many times when you do not understand people and situations. This is very difficult, but it is also normal. Try not to be discouraged! Communication will get better with time. You will get used to the new culture and start to understand the language.
Wakati unapowasili katika nchi mpya, bila kujua lugha hufanya kila kitu ngumu. Hapa ni baadhi ya mambo ya muhimu kujua kuhusu kuwasiliana na Wamarekani.
When you arrive in a new country, not knowing the language makes everything difficult. Here are some useful things to know about communicating with Americans.
Wakati wa miezi kadhaa kwanza wewe ni katika Marekani, wewe pengine vipaya vingi ya vitu. Hii ni kawaida na sio kosa lako. Jaribu uwezavyo kuwa chanya – kama mtu inaonekana wajeuri au maana, Wakumbushe mwenyewe kwamba inaweza kuwa kwa sababu ya tofauti ya kitamaduni. Do not assume they are a bad or rude person.
During the first several months you are in the United States, you will probably misunderstand lots of things. This is normal and not your fault. Try your best to be positive – if someone appears rude or mean, remind yourself that it may be because of a cultural difference. Do not assume they are a bad or rude person.
Kama huelewi kitu ambacho alisema unaweza, Uliza mtu kurudia walisema nini. Au Waulize kusema tena zaidi tu. Si kuwa na hofu ya kuendelea kuuliza.
If you don’t understand something that is said to you, ask the person to repeat what they said. Or ask them to say it again more simply. Do not be afraid to keep asking.
Wamarekani wengi ni nyeti kuhusu mada fulani. Kwa mfano:
Many Americans are sensitive about certain subjects. For example:
• They may be “kisiasa ulio sahihi.” Being politically correct means trying not to say things that will offend a particular group of people. Kwa mfano, many Americans do not tolerate racist or sexist jokes. Usahihi huu husaidia kujenga jamii. But it will cause problems if others are disrespectful.
• They may be “politically correct.” Being politically correct means trying not to say things that will offend a particular group of people. For example, many Americans do not tolerate racist or sexist jokes. This correctness helps to create an inclusive society. But it will cause problems if others are disrespectful.
• Wamarekani wengi hatupendi kuzungumzia uzito wao, umri wao, au fedha kiasi gani wao kufanya. Kama wewe kusema kitu kuhusu uzito wa mtu, umri gani wao ni, au jinsi matajiri au maskini ni, anaweza kuhuzunika.
• Most Americans do not like to talk about their weight, their age, or how much money they make. If you say something about someone’s weight, how old they are, or how rich or poor they are, they might be upset.
• Watu pia kutaka kukuambia wapi wanakwenda au ambapo wanaishi. Kama wewe kuuliza mtu, “Unaenda wapi?” wanaweza kufikiria una nia mbaya.
• People also may not want to tell you where they are going or where they live. If you ask someone, “Where are you going?” they may think you have a bad intention.
There are some topics that are easier to talk about without having a communication problem. Maeneo ya kawaida katika tamaduni ni watoto na michezo. Kama wewe ni kuwa na wakati mgumu kuzungumza na mtu, talk about these topics!
There are some topics that are easier to talk about without having a communication problem. Common areas across cultures are children and sports. If you are having a hard time talking to someone, talk about these topics!
Most Americans will talk “mazungumzo” na wewe. Wanauliza jinsi ni au kuzungumzia hali ya hewa. This is considered polite. Kama mtu anasema, “Habari yako?” mtu mwingine karibu daima anasema,”Nzuri,” “Faini,” au “Sawa kabisa,” hata kama yeye au yeye ni huzuni au mgonjwa.
Most Americans will talk “small talk” with you. They will ask how you are or talk about the weather. This is considered polite. If someone says, “How are you?” the other person almost always says,”Good,” “Fine,” or “OK,” even if he or she is sad or unwell.
Tafadhali na Asante
Please and thank you
Katika Marekani, watu wanasema “Tafadhali” wakati wanaomba kwa kitu na “Asante” wakati wao kupokea kitu au mtu huwasaidia. Wamarekani huwa kuwashukuru wengine hata kwa mambo madogo. Kama mtu ana mlango wazi kwa ajili yenu, ni heshima kwa kusema Asante. Kama mtu anatoa zawadi, lazima pia kusema Asante.
In the USA, people say “please” when they ask for something and “thank you” when they receive something or someone helps them. Americans tend to thank others even for little things. If someone holds a door open for you, it is polite to say thank you. If someone gives you a gift, you should also say thank you.
Kiingereza kama lugha ya pili
English as a second language
Learning English is one of the most important things you can do to help you adjust to life in the USA. If you do not speak much English, Unaweza kupata madarasa bure online na katika jamii yako. You can find ways to learn English online or in your local community.
One of the best ways to learn a new language is to immerse yourself in it and to listen to it a lot. Jaribu kusikiliza na mazoezi Kiingereza kama unaweza. Matamshi, au kusema vitu vizuri, ni moja ya maeneo magumu sana ya kujifunza lugha mpya. Tone yako na ambayo maneno wewe kusisitiza pia jambo. Unavyoweza kuhisi kuwasumbua kwa sababu wewe ni kusema kitu usahihi, lakini Wamarekani haiwezi kuelewa wewe. Wamarekani si wote ni mikazo kutumika nje.
One of the best ways to learn a new language is to immerse yourself in it and to listen to it a lot. Try to listen and practice English as much as you can. Pronunciation, or saying things correctly, is one of the most difficult parts of learning a new language. Your tone and which words you emphasize also matter. You might feel frustrated because you are saying something correctly, but Americans cannot understand you. Not all Americans are used to foreign accents.
Wakati tupo katika mazungumzo na watu wengine, tunaweza kuwasiliana kwa njia mbili muhimu: verbally (using words) and nonverbally. Nonverbal communication means the way we use our body to communicate. It includes:
When we are in a conversation with other people, we communicate in two important ways: verbally (using words) and nonverbally. Nonverbal communication means the way we use our body to communicate. It includes:
- facial expressions
- hand gestures
- mawasiliano ya macho
- posture (how we stand or sit)
- tone of voice
- facial expressions
- hand gestures
- eye contact
- posture (how we stand or sit)
- tone of voice
Baadhi ya watu kufikiri mawasiliano nonverbal ni muhimu zaidi kuliko maneno halisi tunasema. Inasaidia watu kuamua kama kama na kuamini wengine.
Some people think nonverbal communication is more important than the actual words we say. It helps people decide if they like and trust others.
Tamaduni mbalimbali kutumia aina mbalimbali za mawasiliano nonverbal. Hapa ni baadhi ya njia Wamarekani kutumia mawasiliano nonverbal:
Different cultures use different types of nonverbal communication. Here are some of the ways Americans use nonverbal communication:
Mawasiliano ya macho
Watu nchini Marekani zinafundishwa kwa “Simama” kwa ajili ya imani yao. Hii ina maana kama mtu hakubaliani na wewe, wanaweza kuhoji na wewe ili kujaribu kuthibitisha maana yao. Hii inaweza kuwa na wasiwasi sana kama unaweza kuja kutoka utamaduni thamani hiyo “kuokoa uso.” Katika baadhi ya nchi, kupata katika hoja inaweza kumaanisha umepoteza uso.
People in the United States are taught to “stand up” for their beliefs. This means if someone disagrees with you, they may argue with you to try to prove their point. This can be very uncomfortable if you come from a culture that values “saving face.” In some countries, getting into an argument may mean you have lost face.
Wamarekani wanasema nje hasira wala kupambana na, lakini kuonyesha kwa nini wanaamini wao ni sahihi. Arguing is generally accepted as part of the conversation, isipokuwa ni kusema sana sauti (mayowe) au kutumia lugha mbaya au wajeuri. Wanafunzi kuruhusiwa na hata kuhimizwa hawakubaliani na walimu wao. Watoto wanaweza kuhoji na wazazi wao. Wafanyakazi wanaweza kutokubaliana na wakubwa wao, lakini tvingar. Wakati mwingine, especially in American politics, watu wanasema sana kwamba chochote unaweza kupata kufanyika!
Americans argue not out of anger or to fight, but to show you why they believe they are correct. Arguing is generally accepted as part of the conversation, unless you are speaking very loudly (screaming) or using bad or rude language. Students are allowed and even encouraged to disagree with their teachers. Children may argue with their parents. Workers can disagree with their bosses, but politely. Sometimes, especially in American politics, people argue so much that nothing can get done!
Kama unahisi wasiwasi katika hoja, ni sawa kueleza kwamba kufanya si kujisikia vizuri kubishana. Hata hivyo, Unaweza kutaka kujifunza kuwaambia watu kwamba hawakubaliani nao au pengine wanaweza kufikiria, unakubaliana na kile wanasema.
If you feel uncomfortable in an argument, it is okay to explain that you do not feel comfortable arguing. However, you may need to learn to tell people that you disagree with them or else they might think you agree with what they say.
Sehemu moja ya mawasiliano ambayo inaweza kuwa vigumu sana wakati ni kurekebisha utamaduni mpya ni ucheshi. Inaweza kufanya utani kwamba watu hawaelewi. Au mtu kufanya mzaha ili kuelewa. Tangu ucheshi ni utamaduni, wakati mwingine hata kama unaelewa mzaha, wanaweza kufikiria Inafurahisha.
One part of communication that can be very hard when you are adjusting to a new culture is humor. You might make a joke that people around do not understand. Or someone might make a joke that you do not understand. Since humor is cultural, sometimes even if you understand the joke, you might not think it is funny.
Filamu za kuchekesha
Mikataba na makubaliano
Contracts and agreements
Katika Marekani, mikataba ya maandishi na makubaliano ya mdomo ni muhimu.
In the US, written contracts and verbal agreements are important.
Makubaliano ni kawaida ya mdomo. Kwa mfano, mtu anaweza kuuliza unaweza kufanya kitu na wewe kusema ndiyo au hapana. Hii ni makubaliano. Katika Amerika, makubaliano ya mdomo kwa ujumla ni kuchukuliwa umakini sana. Wakati mwingine, wakati kufanya makubaliano ya mdomo, pia kupeana mikono. Kushikana mikono ni ishara kwamba wewe ni wote kwenda kutimiza makubaliano.
Agreements are typically verbal. For example, someone may ask you to do something and you say yes or no. This is an agreement. In America, verbal agreements are generally taken very seriously. Sometimes, when you make a verbal agreement, you may also shake hands. Shaking hands is a symbol that you are both going to fulfill the agreement.
Tatizo moja makubaliano ya mdomo ni kwamba wakati mwingine watu wanaweza vipaya. Kwa mfano, inaweza kufanya makubaliano ya mdomo na mtu ambaye unaweza kukutana nao katika 5 jioni ya siku hiyo. Lakini, Labda vibaya na mawazo maana siku ya pili.
One problem with verbal agreements is that sometimes people can misunderstand. For example, you may make a verbal agreement with someone that you will meet them at 5 pm that day. But, maybe they misunderstood and thought you meant the next day.
Kama unakubaliana na kitu, ni muhimu kwa Wamarekani kwamba wewe ama kutimiza makubaliano kwamba au kwamba wewe basi wajue wewe haiwezi kukamilisha makubaliano. Hii ni kweli hata kwa kitu kidogo. Kwa mfano, kama mtu anauliza wewe kuwa na chakula cha mchana na unaweza kusema ndio, unapaswa ama kwenda kwa chakula cha mchana au lazima kuwaita na kuwaambia haiwezi kuja kabla ni wakati wa chakula cha mchana.
If you agree to something, it is important to Americans that you either fulfill that agreement or that you let them know you can’t complete the agreement. This is true even for something small. For example, if someone asks you to have lunch and you say yes, you should either go to lunch or you should call them and tell them you can’t come before it is time for the lunch.
Mikataba yameandikwa makubaliano kwamba hali gani mbili (au zaidi) watu kukubaliana na. Wakati wewe kwenda ghorofa unapoingia na kukodisha. Unapoanza kazi, wanaweza kupokea mkataba wa ajira. Kama unaweza kununua gari kwa mkopo, huenda kusaini makubaliano ya mkopo. Hizi zote ni mikataba.
Contracts are written agreements that state what two (or more) people agree to. When you move into an apartment you sign a lease. When you start a job, you may receive an employment contract. If you buy a car on credit, you might sign a loan agreement. All of these are contracts.
Kama unaweza kuingia mkataba, pengine una wajibu wa kisheria kutimiza mkataba kwamba. Hivyo ni muhimu sana kwamba kukisoma kwa makini. Kama mkataba ni kwa Kiingereza, Unaweza kutaka kuomba msaada kutafsiri ni. Kwa mkataba rahisi, Unaweza kuuliza rafiki au unaweza barua pepe na sisi kujaribu kukusaidia kuelewa mkataba. Kama inahusu pesa, kazi, au huduma za kisheria, Unaweza kutaka kutumia translator mtaalamu au kuomba ushauri caseworker yako.
If you sign a contract, you probably have a legal obligation to fulfill that contract. So it is very important that you read it carefully. If the contract is in English, you may want to ask for help translating it. For a simple contract, you can ask a friend or you can email us and we will try to help you understand the contract. If it concerns money, work, or legal services, you may want to use a professional translator or ask your caseworker for advice.
Hizi ni generalizations kuhusu utamaduni wa Marekani – si ukweli, mawazo tu ili kukusaidia bora kuelewa kwa nini raia wa Marekani inaweza kuwa kaimu na njia hiyo ni tofauti kwa nini wewe ni kutumika. Njia ya Marekani na utamaduni si bora au mbaya zaidi kuliko njia nyingine – tofauti tu.
These are generalizations about American culture – not facts, just ideas to help you better understand why an American may be acting a way that is different to what you are used to. American ways and culture are not better or worse than other ways – just different.