Je thamani ya Marekani? Kilicho muhimu kwa Wamarekani?
Kuelewa thamani ya Marekani na kujifunza kuhusu kilicho muhimu kwa Wamarekani. Read why Americans value independence, equality, and being on time. You will see why Americans are direct and informal and why competition, work ethic, and buying things are all important in the USA.
Understand American values and learn about what is important to Americans. Read why Americans value independence, equality, and being on time. You will see why Americans are direct and informal and why competition, work ethic, and buying things are all important in the USA.
Je thamani ya Marekani?
What are American values?
Katika nchi yako, pengine alikuwa nguvu mila na utamaduni kwamba wewe zenye thamani ya. Katika Marekani, pia kuna maadili muhimu Marekani. Haya ni mambo ambayo ni muhimu sana kwa Wamarekani.
In your country, you probably had strong traditions and culture that you valued. In the United States, there are also important American values. These are the things that are most important to Americans.
Moja ya thamani kuu nchini Marekani ni uhuru. Uhuru wakati mwingine hujulikana kama individualism. Wamarekani ni kiburi sana kuwa kujitegemea, au kuwa na uwezo wa kuchukua huduma ya wenyewe, na wao huwa kufikiria wengine wanapaswa kuwa kujitegemea kama vile. Wakati mtu kufikia lengo la, kwamba ni kawaida kuonekana kama matokeo ya bidii yake mwenyewe. Hii ni tofauti katika tamaduni zingine nyingi ambazo ni zaidi ya pamoja. Tamaduni pamoja huwa na kuona mafanikio kama reflection familia nzima au jamii.
One of the main values in the United States is independence. Independence is sometimes referred to as individualism. Americans are very proud of being self-reliant, or being able to take care of themselves, and they tend to think others should be self-reliant as well. When someone reaches a goal, that is typically seen as the result of his or her own hard work. This is different than in many other cultures which are more collective. Collective cultures tend to see accomplishments as a reflection of an entire family or community.
Hapa ni mfano wa jinsi Wamarekani thamani uhuru:
Here is an example of how Americans value independence:
- Watoto Marekani huwa kuondoka nyumbani mapema kuliko tamaduni zingine. Kwa mfano, baada ya kuhitimu shule ya sekondari, watoto wengi kuhama kwenda chuo au kuanza kazi. Ikiwa wangeendelea kuishi nyumbani, wanaweza kuulizwa kulipa kodi au kuchangia nyumba.
- Wamarekani kutarajia mtu yeyote aliye na uwezo wa kazi kufanya hivyo ili kujisaidia wenyewe.
- American children tend to leave the home earlier than in other cultures. For example, after graduating high school, many children move out to go to college or start working. If they continued to live at home, they might be asked to pay rent or contribute to the house.
- Americans expect anyone who is able to work to do so in order to support themselves.
Wamarekani thamani faragha na nafasi yao. Wakati katika tamaduni zingine kutaka faragha inaweza kuonekana kama kitu mbaya, Wamarekani wengi kama kuwa wakati peke yake na huenda binafsi kuhusu mada fulani.
Americans value privacy and their own space. While in some cultures wanting privacy may be seen as a bad thing, many Americans like to have alone time and may be private about certain topics.
Hapa kuna hali chache kuhusiana na thamani ya Marekani ya faragha:
Here are a few situations related to the American value of privacy:
- Katika mazungumzo, Wamarekani wengi ni binafsi kuhusu mambo fulani na hawataki kuzungumza kuhusu wao, kama vile umri wao, fedha kiasi gani wao kufanya, au wao kisiasa, maoni ya ngono na dini. Baadhi ya watu si kama kuzungumza kuhusu masomo haya katika umma kwa sababu wasiwasi itasababisha watu wanasema. Hata hivyo, kama una maswali kuhusu mada hizi, Unaweza kuuliza nasi. Wamarekani wengi watafurahi kukufundisha kuhusu jinsi Wamarekani kuona ulimwengu.
- Wamarekani mara nyingi kumpa kila mmoja nafasi zaidi katika hali ya umma kuliko watu katika tamaduni zingine. Wao huwa na kusimama kidogo nafasi kati yao, kawaida umbali wa mkono ulionyoshwa.
- Wamarekani wengi na uzio kuzunguka nyumba zao ili kuhakikisha wana faragha. Kama watoto wako kupoteza mpira au toy nyingine juu ya uzio wa jirani, kwa ujumla ni wazo mbaya kuruka juu ya uzio na kufufua Kisanamu. Badala yake, Nenda kwenye mlango wa mbele na kubisha au pete kengele. Kama kuna jibu hakuna kuondoka Tini kwenye mlango, kumwomba ruhusa ya kuepua toy baina ya 8 pm. Hii ni heshima na salama, kama baadhi ya watu kuwa walinzi wa mbwa au inaweza kuwa kinga sana wa faragha yao. Wazee hasa kawaida wanahitaji zaidi amani na utulivu na si kutaka kuwa inasikitishwa. Kama wewe kufungua mlango lazima ifunge. Hata hivyo, kama unaweza kuja mlango wazi, kuiacha wazi.
- Vyumba ni kawaida kuchukuliwa nafasi binafsi. Majirani na marafiki ni burudani katika jikoni, chumba dining au sebuleni. Wazazi na watoto huwa na vyumba vyao wenyewe, na mara nyingi, Watoto Marekani kila kuwa vyumba vyao wenyewe.
- In conversations, many Americans are private about certain things and do not want to talk about them, such as their age, how much money they make, or their political, sexual and religious views. Some people do not like talking about these subjects in public because they are worried it will cause people to argue. However, if you have questions about these topics, you can ask us. Most Americans will be happy to teach you about how Americans view the world.
- Americans often give each other more space in public situations than people in other cultures. They tend to stand with a bit of space between them, typically the distance of an outstretched arm.
- Many Americans have fences around their houses to ensure they have privacy. If your children lose a ball or other toy over a neighbor’s fence, it is generally a bad idea to jump over the fence and retrieve the toy. Instead, go to the front door and knock or ring the bell. If there is no answer leave a note on the door, asking permission to retrieve the toy between 8am and 8pm. This is both respectful and safe, as some people have guard dogs or may be very protective of their privacy. Elders in particular typically need more peace and quiet and may not want to be disturbed. If you open a gate you must close it. However, if you come to an open gate, leave it open.
- Bedrooms are usually considered private spaces. Neighbors and friends are entertained in the kitchen, dining room or living room. Parents and children tend to have their own bedrooms, and often, American children each have their own bedrooms.
Hayo ni baadhi tu ya mifano ya faragha ambayo inaweza kuwa tofauti katika utamaduni wako.
Those are just some examples of privacy that may be different in your culture.
Wamarekani mara nyingi sana moja kwa moja. Hii ina maanisha wao mara nyingi kukuambia nini wanafikiri na watakuwa zimepokelewa kuhusu nini wanataka. Kuwa zimepokelewa ni kwa ujumla kuonekana kama kitu kizuri katika Amerika.
Americans are often very direct. This means they often tell you what they think and they will be assertive about what they want. Being assertive is generally seen as a good thing in America.
Hapa ni baadhi ya mifano ya directness wa mtindo wa Marekani:
Here are some examples of American-style directness:
- Katika tamaduni zingine, ni wajeuri Kataa mwaliko – kwa mfano, kama mtu anauliza wewe kwa ajili ya chakula cha mchana, Unaweza kusema ndio, lakini basi si kwenda kwa chakula cha mchana. Katika Amerika, karibu kila mara ni bora kusema, “La, lakini Asante” au, “Asante, lakini nina ahadi nyingine.” Kama wewe kusema ndiyo kwa mwaliko lakini si kwenda tukio, mtu anaweza kupata upset.
- Katika mazungumzo, kama raia wa Marekani hakubaliani na maoni yako, wanaweza kukuambia. Hii haimaanishi kama wewe, tu kwamba anaweza kuwa na wazo tofauti.
- Wazo la “kupoteza uso” si sawa na Marekani. Tafsiri kwa “kupoteza uso” Ingekuwa “aibu,” ambayo ni mbaya zaidi. Wamarekani inaweza kuwa aibu kama ni kukosolewa au kufanya kosa, kwa mfano. Hivyo Wamarekani wanaweza kutaja makosa au kukosoa wewe, tu wakikusudia kama marekebisho au taarifa muhimu.
- Katika madarasa ya, Wamarekani wanaweza changamoto walimu wao’ mawazo. Katika tamaduni zingine, ni impolite kutokubaliana na mwalimu wako.
- Ni kamwe ni wajeuri kuomba msaada. Kama rafiki au jirani anauliza wewe kama unahitaji chochote, kweli wanataka kuwasaidia. Jisikie huru kusema, “Kama wewe ni kwenda duka la na kutembea na machungwa ya, Tafadhali kuchukua mimi mfuko, na mimi itabidi kukulipa kwa ajili yao.” Au, Kama unahitaji nguo baridi kwa mfano, na huna uhakika ambapo kununua yao, ni sawa kuuliza, “Una mapendekezo yoyote kwa ajili ya mimi kununua wapi nguo ghali na buti kwa ajili ya watoto wangu?” Wamarekani wengi kupenda kusaidia, na haja ya faraja kidogo sana kuwa marafiki wazuri na majirani.
- In some cultures, it is rude to decline an invitation – for example, if someone asks you for lunch, you may say yes, but then not go to lunch. In America, it is almost always better to say, “No, but thank you” or, “Thank you, but I have another commitment.” If you say yes to an invitation but do not go to the event, the person might get upset.
- In conversation, if an American disagrees with your opinion, they might tell you. This does not mean they do not like you, just that they may have a different idea.
- The idea of “losing face” is not the same in America. The translation for “losing face” would be “embarrassed,” which is less serious. Americans may be embarrassed if they are criticized or make a mistake, for example. So Americans may point out mistakes or criticize you, simply intending it as a correction or useful information.
- In classes, Americans may challenge their teachers’ ideas. In some cultures, it is impolite to disagree with your teacher.
- It is never is rude to ask for help. If a friend or neighbor asks you if you need anything, they truly want to help. Feel free to say, “If you are going to the store and you walk by the oranges, please pick me up a bag, and I’ll pay you for them.” Or, if you need winter clothes for example, and you’re not sure where to buy them, it is OK to ask, “Do you have any suggestions for where I can buy inexpensive coats and boots for my children?” Most Americans love to help, and need very little encouragement to become good friends and neighbors.
Kwa ujumla, ni vyema kukumbuka kwamba kile kuonekana na wajeuri haikusudiwi kwa njia hiyo. Wamarekani ni kujaribu kuwa wajeuri – wao ni tu kuwa moja kwa moja.
In general, it is good to remember that what may appear rude is not intended that way. Americans are not trying to be rude – they are just being direct.
Tangazo la uhuru wa Marekani yasema, “Watu wote wameumbwa sawa.” Katika hali halisi, baadhi ya watu katika Marekani si daima kutibu raia wote sawa, lakini Wamarekani wengi kuhisi nguvu sana juu ya wazo ya usawa. Kuna mifano mingi katika historia ya Marekani ambapo watu wote walikuwa si kutibiwa sawa kama vile ya utumwa wa Afrika Marekani (nyeusi) wananchi. Hata hivyo, Wamarekani kama kuamini wazo kwamba watu wote lazima wawe na fursa sawa. Wazo hili ni sehemu ya kile kilichoitwa ya “Ndoto ya Amerika.” Wahamiaji wengi mapema alihamia Marekani kufuata ndoto ya Amerika. Waliamini kwamba kama wewe kazi kwa bidii, Unaweza Sogeza juu katika jamii.
The US Declaration of Independence declares, “All Men Are Created Equal.” In reality, some people in the United States do not always treat all citizens equally, but many Americans feel very strongly about the idea of equality. There are many examples in American history where all people were not treated equally such as slavery of African American (black) citizens. However, Americans like to believe the idea that all people should have equal opportunities. This idea is a part of what is called the “American Dream.” Many early immigrants moved to America to follow the American Dream. They believed that if you worked hard, you could move up in society.
Leo watu zaidi na zaidi kutambua ndoto ya Amerika ni kweli. Watu wengi wanaofanya kazi kwa bidii sana na pesa nyingi sana. Mara nyingi watu ambao wametoka katika asili ya upendeleo na muda wa rahisi kusonga up katika ulimwengu. Bado, wazo la usawa ni sehemu muhimu ya utamaduni wa Marekani.
Today more and more people realize the American Dream is not true. Many people who work very hard do not have very much money. Often people who come from privileged backgrounds have an easier time moving up in the world. Still, the idea of equality is an important part of US culture.
Hapa ni baadhi ya mifano ya usawa katika utamaduni wa Marekani:
Here are some examples of equality in American culture:
• Katika hali ya kisheria, Wamarekani wote lazima watendewe sawa na Wamarekani wote wana haki ya uwakilishi na mwanasheria.
• In legal situations, all Americans should be treated equally and all Americans have a right to representation by a lawyer.
• Darasani, wanafunzi wote wanapaswa kutendewa sawa na walimu wao. Hakuna mwanafunzi lazima urahisishwe.
• In a classroom, all students should be treated equally by their teachers. No student should be favored.
• Wanaume na wanawake lazima watendewe sawa, na wanaume ni kutazamwa kama bora kuliko wanawake. Katika hali halisi, wanawake wengi bado hawana hadhi sawa kama wanaume katika jamii ya Marekani, hasa katika suala la fedha kiasi gani wao kufanya.
• Men and women should be treated equally, and men are not viewed as better than women. In reality, many women still do not have the same status as men in American society, especially in terms of how much money they can make.
• Katika Amerika, Kuna nguvu pachikwa kijamii uongozi au matabaka mfumo. Wakati mwingine watu ambao wanaweza kutarajia kutibu wewe na heshima inaweza kutibu wewe kama sawa na. Kwa mfano, watoto wanaweza kuwaita mtu mzima wakubwa kwa majina yao ya kwanza. Kama hii hutokea kwako, Jaribu kukumbuka wao ni si kuwa wajeuri, lakini wana thamani tofauti ya kitamaduni.
• In America, there is not a strongly embedded social hierarchy or caste system. Sometimes people who you might expect to treat you with respect may treat you as an equal. For example, children may call an older adult by their first name. If this happens to you, try to remember they are not being rude, but they have a different cultural value.
• Wakati mwingine Wamarekani atakuambia jinsi wanapendelea kushughulikiwa wakati wao kujitambulisha. Kama mwalimu au daktari Utangulizi mwenyewe kama “Lucy” au “Daktari Lucy”, kwamba ni jinsi inapaswa kushughulikia yake. Kama yeye anaanzisha mwenyewe kama Dr. Wilson, hiyo ni nini anapenda kuitwa.
• Sometimes Americans will tell you how they prefer to be addressed when they introduce themselves. If a teacher or a doctor introduces herself as “Lucy” or “Doctor Lucy”, that is how you should address her. If she introduces herself as Dr. Wilson, that is what she prefers to be called.
Ni muhimu kujua kwamba bado huenda iliyoundwa asiyeonekana miongoni mwa watu. Hizi huwa na kuegemea zaidi kwenye mafanikio binafsi: kwa mfano, kazi ya mtu, utajiri, au elimu.
It is useful to know that there may still be invisible hierarchies among people. These tend to be based more on individual success: for example, someone’s job, wealth, or education.
Jamii ya Marekani huwa rasmi na walishirikiana.
American society is often informal and relaxed.
Hapa ni baadhi ya mifano ya jinsi Marekani ni utamaduni rasmi:
Here are some examples of how the United States is an informal culture:
• Wamarekani wanaweza mavazi kijuujuu, kama vile ya kuvaa jeans au kaptula hata kazini, shule, au Kanisa. Wakati wewe kwanza kuanza kazi, ni wazo zuri kwa mavazi rasmi zaidi na kisha kuchagua mavazi yako kulingana na kile watu wanaokuzunguka ni amevaa.
• Americans may dress casually, such as wearing jeans or shorts even at work, school, or church. When you first start a job, it is a good idea to dress more formally and then to choose your attire based on what the people around you are wearing.
• Wakati salamu mtu, Wamarekani huwa na kusema, “Jambo” au, “Hello.” Unaweza kutumia salamu sawa bila kujali nani ni kuzungumza na: mwana wako au mwalimu wako mwana. Langauge na hana fomu rasmi na isiyo rasmi ya salamu.
• When greeting someone, Americans tend to say, “Hi” or, “Hello.” You use the same greeting no matter who you are talking to: your son or your son’s teacher. The langauge does not have formal and informal forms of greeting.
• Wamarekani huwa kuwaita kila mmoja kwa majina yao ya kwanza. Katika baadhi ya hali, Hata hivyo, ni bora kuwa rasmi zaidi na kutumia majina ya mwisho mpaka ni aliomba kutumia jina la kwanza – kwa mfano, katika hali ya biashara au shuleni.
• Americans tend to call each other by their first names. In some situations, however, it is better to be more formal and to use last names until you are asked to use a first name – for example, in a business situation or at school.
Wakati informality wa sisi utamaduni inaweza mshangao wewe, hiyo haimaanishi kuwa wajeuri. Kwa kweli, kama mtu akisalimia wewe rasmi na wito wewe kwa jina lako la kwanza, pengine maana wanadhani wenu kwa njia ya kirafiki.
While the informality of US culture may surprise you, it is not meant to be rude. In fact, if someone greets you informally and calls you by your first name, it probably means they think of you in a friendly way.
Wamarekani wanaweza kuwa ushindani na mara nyingi kazi kwa bidii ili kufikia malengo yao. Mashindano mara nyingi hupelekea Wamarekani kuwa busy sana. Wengi Wamarekani Mwoneko ushindani ni kitu kizuri.
Americans can be competitive and often work hard to achieve their goals. Competition often leads Americans to be very busy. Many Americans view competition is a good thing.
Hapa ni baadhi ya mifano ya thamani ya Marekani ya mashindano:
Here are some examples of the American value of competition:
• Ushindani katika biashara ni ukomo katika sehemu kubwa ya uchumi wa kibepari. Modeli ya biashara ya Marekani ni kushindana kwa wateja na kwa bei nzuri.
• Competition in business is due in large part to the capitalist economy. America’s business model is to compete for customers and for the best prices.
• Wamarekani ratiba kura ya shughuli. Hata watoto wadogo kushiriki katika kura ya shughuli nje ya shule, kama vile michezo, masomo ya muziki, na kujitolea. Wakati mwingine unaweza kuhisi kama Wamarekani ni “wanaokimbilia karibu” na muda kidogo kwa ajili ya kufurahi. Lakini Wamarekani wengi wanahisi nzuri wakati wao kupata mengi kufanyika.
• Americans will schedule lots of activities. Even young children participate in lots of activities outside of school, such as sports, music lessons, and volunteering. Sometimes you may feel like Americans are “rushing around” with little time for relaxing. But many Americans they feel good when they get a lot done.
• Ushindani inaweza kuonekana katika shule, katika mahali pa kazi, na katika michezo. Kwa mfano, wanafunzi wanaweza kazi kwa bidii ili kufikia madarasa bora. Wakati mwingine mashindano inahusisha makundi, kama vile soka timu au kundi la somo la shule.
• Competition can be seen in school, in the workplace, and in sports. For example, students may work hard to achieve the best grades. Sometimes competition involves groups, such as a soccer team or a school study group.
• Wamarekani wanaweza pia “kushindana” na wenyewe. Wamarekani wengi kazi kwa bidii ili kuweka kuboresha katika kile kufanya. Kwa mfano, wao kutaka kukimbia mbio zaidi kuliko walivyofanya wakati wa mwisho au wao kutaka kuuza vitu zaidi kwa kazi yao kuliko walivyofanya mwaka kabla ya.
• Americans may also “compete” with themselves. Many Americans work hard to keep improving at what they do. For example, they may want to run a race faster than they did last time or they may want to sell more items at their job than they did the year before.
Jumla, thamani kuwekwa kwenye mashindano inaweza kusababisha wewe kuhisi mshtuko baadhi ya utamaduni, hasa kama wewe alikuja kutoka utamaduni ambao ni ushirikiano zaidi kuliko ushindani.
Overall, the value placed on competition may cause you to feel some culture shock, especially if you came from a culture that is more collaborative than competitive.
Wakati na ufanisi
Time and efficiency
Wamarekani mahali mengi ya thamani juu ya muda wao. Wamarekani kuhisi kuwasumbua kama wanafikiri mtu au kitu ina Imewapotezea muda. Wamarekani baadhi mpango nje wakati wao kwa makini, kutumia kalenda kila siku kwa maisha yao binafsi na kazi zao maisha. Kuna msemo katika Amerika: muda ni pesa. Hii ina maana Wamarekani wengi ungependa kutumia muda wao “ufanisi” – wanataka kupata zaidi sana katika kiasi mfupi wa muda.
Americans place a lot of value on their time. Americans may feel frustrated if they think someone or something has wasted their time. Some Americans plan out their time carefully, using daily calendars for both their personal lives and their work lives. There is a saying in America: time is money. This means many Americans like to use their time “efficiently” – they want to get the most done in the shortest amount of time.
Hii inaweza kuwa tofauti na ni kutumika kwa. Wakati wa kufanya mpango biashara, wanaweza kutumia muda kupata kujua mtu mwingine, Labda wakati wa kunywa chai au kahawa. Katika Marekani, Hii ni mara nyingi si kesi.
This may be different from what you are used to. When making a business deal, you may spend time getting to know the other person, maybe while drinking tea or coffee. In the United States, this is often not the case.
Hapa ni baadhi ya hali ambayo unaweza kuwa na ufahamu wa muda:
Here are some situations in which you might want to be aware of time:
- Mikutano, hasa kwa ajili ya kazi: Unafaa kujaribu kuwahi – pengine hata 5 dakika mapema.
- Miadi: Kama una miadi ya daktari au aina nyingine ya miadi, unahitaji kufika kwa wakati. Unaweza bado kuwa kusubiri miadi. Hata hivyo, ni muhimu wewe ni juu ya muda au unaweza kuwa na kuweka ratiba upya ya miadi.
- Shughuli na marafiki: Kama wewe walioalikwa kwenye nyumba ya mtu kwa ajili ya chakula cha jioni, kujaribu kuwa kwa wakati – Unaweza kuwa 5 au 10 dakika mwishoni mwa, Lakini kama wewe ni baadaye sana kuliko, unapaswa pengine wito na wajue.
- Vyama vya: Kwa ajili ya sherehe ndogo, kufika ndani ya 15 dakika ya muda uliotolewa. Kwa ajili ya chama kubwa na watu wengi, Unaweza kuwa 30 kwa 40 dakika mwishoni mwa.
- Meetings, especially for work: You should try to be on time – probably even 5 minutes early.
- Appointments: If you have a doctor’s appointment or some other kind of appointment, you need to arrive on time. You may still have to wait for the appointment. However, it is important you are on time or you may have to reschedule the appointment.
- Activities with friends: If you are invited to someone’s house for dinner, try to be on time – you can be 5 or 10 minutes late, but if you are much later than that, you should probably call and let them know.
- Parties: For a small party, arrive within 15 minutes of the time given. For a large party with many people, you can be 30 to 40 minutes late.
Utawala bora ni kwamba wakati wowote wewe ni kwenda kuwa marehemu, Muite na basi mtu ni Mkutano kujua utakuwa mwishoni mwa. Kama hawezi kujiita, wewe niwaambie mtu unasikitika kwa kuwa marehemu unapofika.
A good rule is that anytime you are going to be late, you should call and let the person you are meeting know you will be late. If you can’t call, you should tell the person you are sorry for being late when you arrive.
Wakati mwingine, Unaweza kuhisi kama mtu ni kuacha haraka sana au ni haraka kuondoka. Hii inaweza kuwa kwa sababu wanataka kuwa “kwa wakati” kwa ajili ya miadi yao inayofuata. Haina maana kama wewe.
Sometimes, you may feel like someone is leaving very quickly or is in a hurry to leave. This may be because they want to be “on time” for their next appointment. It does not mean they do not like you.
Kuwa kwa wakati na kuwa na ufahamu wa muda ni tofauti utamaduni wewe pengine haja na kurekebisha kwa sababu kama umechelewa, Unaweza kupoteza kazi yako, Miss miadi yako, au kuumiza hisia za mtu. Kama una wakati mgumu kurekebisha kwa maana ya Marekani ya wakati, Unaweza kupata saa au simu ambayo ina kengele kukukumbusha ya muda, hasa kwa ajili ya kupata kazi.
Being on time and being aware of time is a cultural difference you will probably need to adapt to because if you are late, you could lose your job, miss your appointments, or hurt someone’s feelings. If you have a hard time adjusting to the American sense of time, you may want to get a watch or phone that has an alarm to remind you of the time, especially for getting to work.
Maadili ya kazi
Wamarekani inaweza kuwa na umakini sana katika kazi zao. Wakati mwingine watu kutoka tamaduni zingine kufikiri Wamarekani “kuishi-na-kazi” au ni “workaholics.” Hii ina maana wanadhani Wamarekani kazi sana. Sehemu ya sababu Wamarekani ni kazi-oriented ni kwa sababu kuwa busy na kazi ni mara nyingi kuonekana kama kitu kizuri. Watu pia huwa na kutambua nguvu na kazi zao. Kwa mfano, wakati wewe kwanza kukutana na mtu, moja ya maswali kwanza anaweza kuuliza wewe ni “Unafanya kazi gani?” Yanamaanisha, “Je, ni aina gani ya kazi unafanya?”
Americans can be very focused on their work. Sometimes people from other cultures think Americans “live-to-work” or are “workaholics.” This means they think Americans work too much. Part of the reason Americans are work-oriented is because being busy and active is often seen as a good thing. People also tend to identify strongly with their jobs. For example, when you first meet someone, one of the first questions they might ask you is “What do you do?” They mean, “What kind of work do you do?”
Wanaume au wanawake wanaofanya kazi nyumbani kutunza familia na mara nyingi wito wenyewe “nyumbani-watunga” na wanastahili heshima kwa ajili ya kazi hii kama vile yoyote nyingine. Wakati kujaza maombi ya aina yoyote, ni sawa kuandika “nyumbani-Muumba” kama kazi kwa mtu ambaye hana kazi kulipa nje ya nyumbani.
Men or women who work at home taking care of the family often call themselves “home-makers” and deserve respect for this occupation as much as any other. When filling out an application of any kind, it is OK to write “home-maker” as the occupation for someone who does not have a paying job outside the home.
Kama mgeni katika Marekani, wakati mwingine unadhani Wamarekani kuonekana mpenda – kumiliki na kununua vitu. Sehemu ya sababu kwa hili ni kwamba Wamarekani wengi thamani ushindani na kazi. Kwa sababu Wamarekani thamani mashindano, wanataka “Endeleeni” na wale wanaowazunguka. Hii ina maana, kwa mfano, kama jirani yako got gari mpya, Unaweza kutaka gari mpya pia. Wamarekani huita hii “Kuweka na Joneses ya.”
As a newcomer to the United States, you may sometimes think Americans seem materialistic – focused on owning and buying things. Part of the reason for this is that many Americans value competition and work. Because Americans value competition, they want to “keep up” with those around them. This means, for example, if your neighbor got a new car, you might want a new car also. Americans call this “Keeping up with the Joneses.”
Thamani ya Wamarekani wengi kazi na kuwa na maadili imara ya kazi. Wamarekani wengi kuonyesha vipengee vifaa kama vile TV au viatu kama njia ya kuonyesha ni mafanikio katika kazi. Wamarekani anaweza kufikiri ya vipengee vifaa kama zawadi kwa ajili ya kufanya kazi kwa bidii na juhudi zao.
Many Americans value work and have a strong work ethic. Many Americans view material items such as TVs or shoes as a way to show they are successful at work. Americans may think of material items as rewards for their hard work and efforts.
Sababu nyingine Wamarekani huenda kipengee-oriented ni kwa sababu Wamarekani wengi thamani upya na ubunifu. Hivyo hata kama wana simu kwamba kazi, wao kutaka simu mpya kwa sababu ina nduni mpya na ya kusisimua. Huna kuhisi lazima una kura ya mali kuheshimiwa. Lazima kujisikia vizuri kuishi tu au njia yoyote unapendelea, Labda kuokoa fedha zaidi kwa ajili ya dharura, elimu na kustaafu badala ya kutumia kwenye vipengee ili kuwafurahisha wengine.
Another reason Americans may be object-oriented is because many Americans value newness and innovation. So even if they have a phone that works, they may want a new phone because it has new and exciting features. You do not have to feel you must have lots of possessions to be respected. You should feel comfortable living simply or any way you prefer, maybe saving more money for emergencies, education and retirement rather than spending on objects to impress others.
Kauli ya juu wote ni generalizations za thamani ya Marekani. Generalizations huwa si kweli, Lakini mambo ambayo mara nyingi ni kweli. Lengo la RCO na ni kutoa generalizations ili kukusaidia kuelewa vyema kwa nini raia wa Marekani inaweza kuwa kutenda kwa njia ya wewe kuelewa. Kumbuka, wala njia ni bora kuliko ya wengine njia – tu tofauti.
All of the above statements are generalizations of American values. Generalizations are not always true, but things that are often true. The goal of the RCO is to provide generalizations to help you better understand why an American may be acting in a way you do not understand. Remember, neither way is better than the other way – just different.