Isgaarsiinta ee USA
Communication waa sida aan u wadaagno macluumaadka iyo fikradaha dadka kale. Waxaan sidaas u sameynaa by hadlaya, by qoraal ah, iyo xataa annagoo gacmahayaga, wejigaaga, iyo jirka. In dal cusub, waxaan u baahan nahay si ay u bartaan habab cusub oo xidhiidhka. Halkan waxaa ku qoran qaar ka mid ah talooyin si ay kaaga caawiso isgaadhsiin ee USA.
Communication is how we share information and ideas with other people. We do it by speaking, by writing, and even with our hands, face, and body. In a new country, we need to learn new ways of communicating. Here are some tips to help you communicate in the USA.
Inta lagu jiro bilood ee ugu horeysay ee USA aad, waxaa jiri doona marar badan marka aadan fahmin dadka iyo xaaladaha. Tani waa mid aad u adag, laakiin sidoo kale waa caadi. ma isku dayaan in ay la niyad jabin! Isgaarsiinta fiicnaan doontaa waqti. Waxaad heli doontaa used dhaqanka cusub oo ay bilaabaan in ay fahmaan luuqadda.
During your first months in the USA, there will be many times when you do not understand people and situations. This is very difficult, but it is also normal. Try not to be discouraged! Communication will get better with time. You will get used to the new culture and start to understand the language.
Markii aad timaado dal cusub, ma uu garanaynin afka ka dhigaysa wax walba oo adag. Halkan waxaa ku qoran qaar ka mid ah wax wanaagsan in la ogaado oo ku saabsan xidhiidhka Maraykanka.
When you arrive in a new country, not knowing the language makes everything difficult. Here are some useful things to know about communicating with Americans.
Inta lagu jiro dhowrkii bilood ee ugu horreysa aad ku sugan tahay Maraykanka, laga yaabaa inaad fahmi doonaa waxyaabo badan oo. Tani waa caadi oo ma adiga qaladkaaga. Isku day inaad aad ugu fiican inay wax wanaagsan - haddii uu qof u muuqataa qallafsan ama macnaheedu, xusuusinayaa in waxa laga yaabaa sababtoo ah kala duwanaansho dhaqameed. Ha u qaadan inay yihiin qof xun ama fiicnayn.
During the first several months you are in the United States, you will probably misunderstand lots of things. This is normal and not your fault. Try your best to be positive – if someone appears rude or mean, remind yourself that it may be because of a cultural difference. Do not assume they are a bad or rude person.
Haddii aadan fahmin wax ay kugu yidhi, weydii qofka inuu ku celiyo waxa ay sheegay in. Ama weydii inay ka badan si fudud mar kale ku odhan. Ha ka baqin inaad xajisaan weydiinaya.
If you don’t understand something that is said to you, ask the person to repeat what they said. Or ask them to say it again more simply. Do not be afraid to keep asking.
mawduucyada xasaasiga ah
Dad badan oo Maraykan ah oo xasaasi ah oo ku saabsan maadooyinka qaarkood. Tusaale ahaan:
Many Americans are sensitive about certain subjects. For example:
• Waxaa laga yaabaa inay “siyaasad sax ah.” In hab siyaasad sax ah oo isku dayaya in aan wax in xumayn maayo koox gaar ah oo dad ah. Tusaale ahaan, badan oo Maraykan ah ma u dulqaadan kaftanka cunsuri ama xaqiraad. sax Tani waxay ka caawisaa in la abuuro bulsho loo dhan yahay. Laakiin waxay taasi keeni doontaa dhibaato haddii kuwa kale ay yihiin ixtiraam.
• They may be “politically correct.” Being politically correct means trying not to say things that will offend a particular group of people. For example, many Americans do not tolerate racist or sexist jokes. This correctness helps to create an inclusive society. But it will cause problems if others are disrespectful.
• Dadka Maraykanka badidoodu ma jecla in ay ka hadlaan ay miisaanka, da'dooda, ama inta lacag ee ay sameeyaan. Haddii aad wax ku saabsan qof miisaan, sida jir ay yihiin, ama sida hodan yihiin ama faqiir ay yihiin, waxay u dhawdahay inay xanaaqsan.
• Most Americans do not like to talk about their weight, their age, or how much money they make. If you say something about someone’s weight, how old they are, or how rich or poor they are, they might be upset.
• Dadka ayaa sidoo kale laga yaabaa in aan doonayaa in aan kuu sheego meesha ay u socdaan ama ay ku nool yihiin. Haddii aad weydiiso qof, “Xaggee baad u socotaa?” waxay u malayn kartaa inaad leedahay ujeeddo xun.
• People also may not want to tell you where they are going or where they live. If you ask someone, “Where are you going?” they may think you have a bad intention.
Waxaa jira qaar ka mid ah mawduucyo si sahlan in ay ka hadlaan oo aan dhibaato isgaarsiinta a. meelaha la wadaago dhaqamada kala duwan yihiin carruurta iyo isboortiga. Haddii aad haysato waqti adag la hadasho qof, ka hadlaan mawduucyadan!
There are some topics that are easier to talk about without having a communication problem. Common areas across cultures are children and sports. If you are having a hard time talking to someone, talk about these topics!
Dadka Maraykanka badidoodu hadli doonaa “hadal yar” aad la. Waxay ku weydiin doonaan sidee tahay ama la hadal ku saabsan cimilada. Tani waxaa loo arkaa edeb. Haddii qof, “Sidee tahay?” qofka kale had iyo jeer sheegay,”Good,” “Fine,” ama “OK,” xataa haddii uu isagu ama iyadu waa murugo ama xanuunsan.
Most Americans will talk “small talk” with you. They will ask how you are or talk about the weather. This is considered polite. If someone says, “How are you?” the other person almost always says,”Good,” “Fine,” or “OK,” even if he or she is sad or unwell.
Farxin iyo aad ugu mahad naqayaa
Please and thank you
In USA, dadka ku odhan “fadlan” marka ay weydiiso wax iyo “mahadsanid” marka ay wax hesho ama qof ka caawineysaa. Americans u muuqdaan in ay mahad dadka kale xataa wax yar. Haddii qof heysta albaab furan kuu, waa edeb u mahadcelinayaa. Haddii uu qof ku siinayaa hadiyad, waa in aad sidoo kale idinku mahadnaqayaa.
In the USA, people say “please” when they ask for something and “thank you” when they receive something or someone helps them. Americans tend to thank others even for little things. If someone holds a door open for you, it is polite to say thank you. If someone gives you a gift, you should also say thank you.
Luqadda Ingiriiska luqadda labaad
English as a second language
Learning English waa mid ka mid ah waxyaabaha ugu muhiimsan ee aad samayn karto si ay kaaga caawiyaan inaad la qabsato nolosha Maraykanka. Haddii aadan ku hadli karin Ingriiska, waxaad ka heli kartaa fasalada free online iyo bulshadaada. Waxaad ka heli kartaa siyaabo in bartaan Ingiriisi online ama in bulshada degaanka.
Mid ka mid ah hababka ugu fiican ee si aad u barato luqad cusub waa in aad naftaada quusin ku sugan iyo in ay maqlaan in badan oo. Isku day inaad dhagaysato oo aad ku dhaqmaan Ingiriisi sida ugu badan ee aad awoodid. ku dhawaaqida, ama isagoo leh wax sax ah, waa mid ka mid ah qaybaha ugu adag ee barashada luqad cusub. Your midab iyo ereyada sidoo kale aad tilmaami arrinta. laga yaabaa in aad dareento wareer, sababtoo ah waxaad leedahay wax sax ah, laakiin ma Americans aad fahmi karto. Ma aha oo dhan Maraykanka waxaa loo isticmaalaa in Lahjadda shisheeye.
One of the best ways to learn a new language is to immerse yourself in it and to listen to it a lot. Try to listen and practice English as much as you can. Pronunciation, or saying things correctly, is one of the most difficult parts of learning a new language. Your tone and which words you emphasize also matter. You might feel frustrated because you are saying something correctly, but Americans cannot understand you. Not all Americans are used to foreign accents.
Marka aynu nahay in wada hadalka dadka kale, waxaan xiriiro laba siyaabood oo muhiim ah: hadal (isticmaalaya erayo) iyo nonverbally. isgaarsiinta Nonverbal ka dhigan tahay sida aan u jidhkeenna isticmaalnaa gudbinta. Waxaa ka mid ah:
When we are in a conversation with other people, we communicate in two important ways: verbally (using words) and nonverbally. Nonverbal communication means the way we use our body to communicate. It includes:
- eegga gacanta
- isha xiriir
- Dhehana (sidee baynu u taagnaanaynaa ama ku fadhiisan)
- naaxiyadda codka
- facial expressions
- hand gestures
- eye contact
- posture (how we stand or sit)
- tone of voice
dadka qaar ayaa u malaynaya isgaarsiinta odhaah ka muhiimsan yahay erayada dhabta ah aynu nidhaahno. Waxay ka caawisaa dadka go'aansato haddii ay jecel yihiin iyo kuwa kale oo isku halleeya.
Some people think nonverbal communication is more important than the actual words we say. It helps people decide if they like and trust others.
dhaqamada kala duwan u isticmaalaan noocyada kala duwan ee isgaarsiinta odhaah. Halkan waxaa ku qoran qaar ka mid ah siyaabaha Americans isticmaalaan isgaarsiinta odhaah:
Different cultures use different types of nonverbal communication. Here are some of the ways Americans use nonverbal communication:
Dadka oo dalka Mareykanka ah waxaa la baraa in “istaag” waayo, waxay aaminsan yihiin. Taas macnaheedu waxa weeye haddii qof diidan in aad la, Waxaa laga yaabaa in ay idin kula doodaan in ay isku dayaan si ay u caddeeyaan dhibic. Tani waxay noqon kartaa mid aad u raaxo haddii aad ka dhaqan in la qiimeeyo iman “badbaadinta wajiga.” Wadamada qaarkood, is geliyey muran macnaheedu waxaa laga yaabaa inaad wajiga ayaa laga badiyay.
People in the United States are taught to “stand up” for their beliefs. This means if someone disagrees with you, they may argue with you to try to prove their point. This can be very uncomfortable if you come from a culture that values “saving face.” In some countries, getting into an argument may mean you have lost face.
Americans ka Doodin baxay oo xanaaq ah ama si ay ula dagaalamaan, laakiin si aan idiin tuso sababta ay u aamminsan ay sax yihiin. Murankii waxaa guud ahaan la aqbalay oo qayb ka ah wadahadalka, haddii aad ku hadla aad u qaylo (qeyliyo) ama isticmaalka luqad xun ama edeb. Ardayda waxaa loo ogol yahay iyo xataa lagu dhiirigelinayaa in ay khilaafsan tahay macalimiinta. Carruurta waxaa laga yaabaa in waalidka ay ku doodayaan. Shaqaalaha raacsanayn karaan madaxda ay, laakiin edeb leh. Mararka qaarkood, gaar ahaan siyaasadda American, dadka ku doodi aad u badan in aan waxba la isu samayn karaa!
Americans argue not out of anger or to fight, but to show you why they believe they are correct. Arguing is generally accepted as part of the conversation, unless you are speaking very loudly (screaming) or using bad or rude language. Students are allowed and even encouraged to disagree with their teachers. Children may argue with their parents. Workers can disagree with their bosses, but politely. Sometimes, especially in American politics, people argue so much that nothing can get done!
Haddii aad dareento raaxo in muran, caadi tahay si ay u sharxaan in aad dareento raaxo Murankii. Si kastaba ha ahaatee, Waxaa laga yaabaa in aad u baahan tahay si ay u bartaan si ay dadka oo aad iyaga la diiddan tahay sheeg haddii kale ay la tahay laga yaabo in aad raacsan tahay wixii ay ku odhan.
If you feel uncomfortable in an argument, it is okay to explain that you do not feel comfortable arguing. However, you may need to learn to tell people that you disagree with them or else they might think you agree with what they say.
Mid ka mid ah qayb ka mid ah isgaarsiinta in uu noqon karaa mid aad u adag marka aad la qabsado dhaqanka cusub waa kaftan. laga yaabaa kaftan ah in dadka ku nool fahmi weydo inaad u samaysaa. Ama qof kaftan in aad fahmi weydo dhigo. Tan iyo kaftan waa dhaqanka, mararka qaar xitaa haddii aad fahmi kaftan ah, waxaad laga yaabaa in aan u maleyso inay tahay funny.
One part of communication that can be very hard when you are adjusting to a new culture is humor. You might make a joke that people around do not understand. Or someone might make a joke that you do not understand. Since humor is cultural, sometimes even if you understand the joke, you might not think it is funny.
dheel dheel ah
Qandaraasyada iyo heshiisyada
Contracts and agreements
In Maraykanka, heshiiska ku qoran oo heshiis afka ah waa muhiim.
In the US, written contracts and verbal agreements are important.
Heshiisyada waa caadi afka ah. Tusaale ahaan, qofka ayaa laga yaabaa inuu ku weydiiyo inaad wax ka qaban oo idinku waxaad odhan haa ama maya. Tani waa heshiis. In America, heshiis afka ah waxaa guud ahaan loo qaaday si aad u daran. Mararka qaarkood, marka aad heshiis afka ah, Waxa kale oo laga yaabaa in aad gacan. Salaanta gacmaha waxa ay calaamad u yihiin in aad labada socday si ay u gutaan heshiiska.
Agreements are typically verbal. For example, someone may ask you to do something and you say yes or no. This is an agreement. In America, verbal agreements are generally taken very seriously. Sometimes, when you make a verbal agreement, you may also shake hands. Shaking hands is a symbol that you are both going to fulfill the agreement.
Mid ka mid ah dhibaatada la heshiis afka ah waa in mararka qaar dadka fahmi kara. Tusaale ahaan, laga yaabaa inaad heshiis afka ah la qof in aad iyaga ka hor tago doonaa 5 maalintaas pm. Laakiin, waxaa laga yaabaa in ay fahmay oo u maleeyey in aad loogu talagalay maalinta ku xigta.
One problem with verbal agreements is that sometimes people can misunderstand. For example, you may make a verbal agreement with someone that you will meet them at 5 pm that day. But, maybe they misunderstood and thought you meant the next day.
Haddii aad ogolaato inaad wax, waxaa muhiim ah in Americans in aad sidoo kale soo dhalaasho heshiiskii in ama in aad ha ogaadeen ma waxaad buuxin kartaa heshiiska. Tani waa run xitaa wax yar. Tusaale ahaan, haddii qof aad weydiiyo in ay qadada oo idinku waxaad odhan haa, waa in aad sidoo kale u tag qadada ama waa in aad iyaga ugu yeedho oo u sheeg ma aad iman kartaa ka hor, waa wakhti loogu talagalay qadada.
If you agree to something, it is important to Americans that you either fulfill that agreement or that you let them know you can’t complete the agreement. This is true even for something small. For example, if someone asks you to have lunch and you say yes, you should either go to lunch or you should call them and tell them you can’t come before it is time for the lunch.
Heshiiska waxaa heshiisyo sheeg waxa ku qoran laba (ama ka badan) dadka ku heshiiyaan in ay. Marka aad u guurto guri aad saxiixdo heshiiska kirada. Marka aad bilowdo shaqo, Waxaa laga yaabaa in aad hesho heshiiska shaqada. Haddii aad soo iibsato baabuur on credit, laga yaabaa in aad saxiixdo heshiis amaah ah. Dhamaan kuwani waa qandaraasyo.
Contracts are written agreements that state what two (or more) people agree to. When you move into an apartment you sign a lease. When you start a job, you may receive an employment contract. If you buy a car on credit, you might sign a loan agreement. All of these are contracts.
Haddii aad saxiixdo heshiis, aad u badan tahay waajib sharci ah si ay u gutaan heshiis in. Sidaas darteed waa mid aad u muhiim ah in aad si taxadar leh u akhri. Haddii heshiiska waa in English, laga yaabaa in aad rabto in aad weydiiso caawimaad u tarjumida. Wixii heshiis fudud, waxaad weydiisan kartaa saaxiib ama aad awoodid email noogu oo waxaan isku dayi doonaa inuu kaa caawiyo inaad fahamto heshiiska. Haddii ay ku saabsan tahay lacag, shaqada, ama adeegyada sharciga, laga yaabaa in aad rabto in aad isticmaasho turjumaan xirfadle ama weydii shaqaalahaaga bulshada talo.
If you sign a contract, you probably have a legal obligation to fulfill that contract. So it is very important that you read it carefully. If the contract is in English, you may want to ask for help translating it. For a simple contract, you can ask a friend or you can email us and we will try to help you understand the contract. If it concerns money, work, or legal services, you may want to use a professional translator or ask your caseworker for advice.
Kuwanu waa isku qaadyo ku saabsan dhaqanka American - ma xaqiiqooyin, fikradaha kaliya inuu kaa caawiyo inaad si fiican u fahmaan sababta American ah oo laga yaabaa in lagu simaha hab ka duwan waxa aad loo isticmaalaa in lagu. siyaabo American iyo dhaqanka ma ka fiican ama ka xun yihiin siyaabo kale - oo kaliya oo kala duwan.
These are generalizations about American culture – not facts, just ideas to help you better understand why an American may be acting a way that is different to what you are used to. American ways and culture are not better or worse than other ways – just different.