米国の通信

また英語します。いいえ英語

Communication is how we share information and ideas with other people. We do it by speaking, by writing, and even with our hands, 顔, and body. In a new country, we need to learn new ways of communicating. Here are some tips to help you communicate in the USA.

Communication is how we share information and ideas with other people. We do it by speaking, by writing, and even with our hands, face, and body. In a new country, we need to learn new ways of communicating. Here are some tips to help you communicate in the USA.

communication between cultures

communication between cultures

During your first months in the USA, there will be many times when you do not understand people and situations. This is very difficult, but it is also normal. Try not to be discouraged! Communication will get better with time. You will get used to the new culture and start to understand the language.

During your first months in the USA, there will be many times when you do not understand people and situations. This is very difficult, but it is also normal. Try not to be discouraged! Communication will get better with time. You will get used to the new culture and start to understand the language.

言語

Language

When you arrive in a new country, not knowing the language makes everything difficult. Here are some useful things to know about communicating with Americans.

When you arrive in a new country, not knowing the language makes everything difficult. Here are some useful things to know about communicating with Americans.

誤解

Misunderstandings

最初の数ヶ月間、アメリカ合衆国, あなたはおそらく多くのことを誤解します。. これは通常、あなたのせいじゃないです。. -誰かが失礼かを意味表示される場合は肯定する最善を尽くす, remind yourself that it may be because of a cultural difference. Do not assume they are a bad or rude person.

During the first several months you are in the United States, you will probably misunderstand lots of things. This is normal and not your fault. Try your best to be positive – if someone appears rude or mean, remind yourself that it may be because of a cultural difference. Do not assume they are a bad or rude person.

あなたに言った何かを理解していない場合, 彼らが言ったことを繰り返す人に依頼します。. 再度詳細でそれを言うそれらを求める、または単に. 要求を維持することを恐れてはいけない.

If you don’t understand something that is said to you, ask the person to repeat what they said. Or ask them to say it again more simply. Do not be afraid to keep asking.

敏感なトピック

Sensitive topics

多くのアメリカ人は特定の科目についての敏感です. 例えば:

Many Americans are sensitive about certain subjects. For example:

They may be “政治的に正しい。” Being politically correct means trying not to say things that will offend a particular group of people. 例えば, many Americans do not tolerate racist or sexist jokes. この正当性は、包括的な社会を作成するのに役立ちます. But it will cause problems if others are disrespectful.

They may be “politically correct.” Being politically correct means trying not to say things that will offend a particular group of people. For example, many Americans do not tolerate racist or sexist jokes. This correctness helps to create an inclusive society. But it will cause problems if others are disrespectful.

ほとんどのアメリカ人は自分の体重についてお話ししたいないです。, 自分の年齢, どのくらいのお金を作るか. あなたは誰かの体重について何かを言う場合, 彼らはどのように古い, どのように金持ちか貧乏人か, 彼らは気が動転することがあります。.

Most Americans do not like to talk about their weight, their age, or how much money they make. If you say something about someone’s weight, how old they are, or how rich or poor they are, they might be upset.

人々 もどこに行くかあるいはどこに住んでする必要がありません。. 依頼する場合, “どこに行きますか?” 彼らは悪い意図があると思うことがあります。.

People also may not want to tell you where they are going or where they live. If you ask someone, “Where are you going?” they may think you have a bad intention.

There are some topics that are easier to talk about without having a communication problem. 文化間での一般的なエリア、子供とスポーツ. 誰かに話している難しい時間を過ごしている場合, talk about these topics!

There are some topics that are easier to talk about without having a communication problem. Common areas across cultures are children and sports. If you are having a hard time talking to someone, talk about these topics!

世間話

Small talk

Most Americans will talk “世間話” あなたと. 彼らはどのようにしているか、天気の話しを聞いてきます. This is considered polite. 誰かが言う場合, “お元気ですか?” 他の人はほとんど常に言う,”よし,” “いい,” または “わかりました,” 彼または彼女が悲しいや気分が優れない場合でも.

Most Americans will talk “small talk” with you. They will ask how you are or talk about the weather. This is considered polite. If someone says, “How are you?” the other person almost always says,”Good,” “Fine,” or “OK,” even if he or she is sad or unwell.

どうぞ、よろしく

Please and thank you

アメリカで, 人々 は言う “どうぞ” 彼らは何かを尋ねるとき、 “ありがとう” それらを助ける何かまたは誰かを受けるとき. アメリカ人は、ささいなことに対しても他の人に感謝する傾向があります。. 誰かはあなたのため開いているドアを保持する場合, お礼に失礼です。. 誰かがあなたに贈り物を与える場合, ありがとうを言う必要がありますも.

In the USA, people say “please” when they ask for something and “thank you” when they receive something or someone helps them. Americans tend to thank others even for little things. If someone holds a door open for you, it is polite to say thank you. If someone gives you a gift, you should also say thank you.

第二言語としての英語

English as a second language

Learning English is one of the most important things you can do to help you adjust to life in the USA. If you do not speak much English, オンラインとあなたのコミュニティでの無料クラスを検索できます。. You can find ways to learn English online or in your local community.

Learning English is one of the most important things you can do to help you adjust to life in the USA. If you do not speak much English, you can find free classes online and in your community. You can find ways to learn English online or in your local community.

One of the best ways to learn a new language is to immerse yourself in it and to listen to it a lot. 耳を傾け、できるだけ多く英語を練習しよう. 発音, または、物事を正しく言う, 新しい言語を学習の最も難しい部分の一つです。. あなたのトーンと言葉も問題を強調します。. あなたは不満を感じる可能性がありますあなたが正しく何かを言っているので, あなたが理解できないアメリカ人が、. すべてのアメリカ人が外国に使用されるアクセントです。.

One of the best ways to learn a new language is to immerse yourself in it and to listen to it a lot. Try to listen and practice English as much as you can. Pronunciation, or saying things correctly, is one of the most difficult parts of learning a new language. Your tone and which words you emphasize also matter. You might feel frustrated because you are saying something correctly, but Americans cannot understand you. Not all Americans are used to foreign accents.

非言語的コミュニケーション

Nonverbal communication

私たちが他の人との会話、, 我々 は 2 つの重要な方法で通信します。: verbally (using words) and nonverbally. Nonverbal communication means the way we use our body to communicate. It includes:

When we are in a conversation with other people, we communicate in two important ways: verbally (using words) and nonverbally. Nonverbal communication means the way we use our body to communicate. It includes:

  • facial expressions
  • hand gestures
  • 眼との接触
  • posture (how we stand or sit)
  • tone of voice
  • facial expressions
  • hand gestures
  • eye contact
  • posture (how we stand or sit)
  • tone of voice

一部の人々 は、実際の言葉より非言語的コミュニケーションが大事だと思う. 人々 を助けるかどうかには希望し、他人を信頼を決定.

Some people think nonverbal communication is more important than the actual words we say. It helps people decide if they like and trust others.

異なる文化を使用して、非言語的コミュニケーションの種類. ここでは、いくつかのアメリカ人を使用して、非言語的コミュニケーション方法です。:

Different cultures use different types of nonverbal communication. Here are some of the ways Americans use nonverbal communication:

眼との接触

Eye contact

ほとんどのアメリカ人は重要な会話中にアイコン タクトを作る. 眼との接触を行わない場合, people may think you are lying or something is wrong. あなたの目に直接見える人は頻繁に信頼できると見られる, インテリジェント, 親切です.. 文化から来た人々 がお互いの目を見ていない場合, これはあなたのため非常に難しいかもしれません.

Most Americans make eye contact during important conversations. If you do not make eye contact, people may think you are lying or something is wrong. People who look directly into your eyes are often viewed as more trustworthy, intelligent, and kind. If you come from a culture where people do not look into each other’s eyes, this may be very hard for you to do.

Smiling

Smiling

Americans smile a lot to show to be polite and to who that everything is okay. 新しい人と会うとき, 彼らに笑顔することを期待します。.

Americans smile a lot to show to be polite and to who that everything is okay. When you meet someone new, they expect you to smile at them.

姿勢

Posture

まっすぐに立ち上がっている場合, 人々 がより多くの尊敬をする傾向が.

If you stand up straight, people tend to give you more respect.

タッチ

Touch

彼らに会うときに、ほとんどのアメリカ人が手を振る. 時々 人々 はお互いを抱きしめ互いを既に知っている場合. 不快な握手を感じる場合, 握手をする必要はありません。.

Most Americans shake hands when they meet. Sometimes people will hug each other if they already know each other. If you feel uncomfortable shaking hands, you do not have to shake hands.

スペース

Space

アメリカで, 多くの人々 があります。 “パーソナル スペース。” つまり、あなたが誰かに話しているかどうか, 彼らおそらく少なくともあなたから離れてフィートに立つ.

In the USA, people have more “personal space.” This means if you are talking to someone, they will probably stand at least a foot away from you.

引数

Arguments

アメリカ合衆国の人々 に教えられています “立ってください” 自分の信念の. つまり、誰かがあなたに同意しないかどうか, 彼らはあなたのポイントを証明しようとすると主張する可能性があります。. これはその値文化から来た場合は非常に快適にすることができます。 “顔を保存します。” いくつかの国で, 顔を失っていることを意味可能性があります議論に入る.

People in the United States are taught to “stand up” for their beliefs. This means if someone disagrees with you, they may argue with you to try to prove their point. This can be very uncomfortable if you come from a culture that values “saving face.” In some countries, getting into an argument may mean you have lost face.

ない怒りまたは戦いのアメリカ人が主張します。, しかしなぜ彼らは彼らが信じるを修正します。. Arguing is generally accepted as part of the conversation, 非常に大声で話している限り、 (悲鳴を上げる) 不良または失礼な言語を使用してまたは. 学生は彼らの教師に反対するも奨励します. 子供たちが両親と論争するかもしれない. 労働者は彼らの上司に反対することが, しかし、丁寧に. たまに, especially in American politics, 何が成し遂げることができる人がそんなに主張しています。!

Americans argue not out of anger or to fight, but to show you why they believe they are correct. Arguing is generally accepted as part of the conversation, unless you are speaking very loudly (screaming) or using bad or rude language. Students are allowed and even encouraged to disagree with their teachers. Children may argue with their parents. Workers can disagree with their bosses, but politely. Sometimes, especially in American politics, people argue so much that nothing can get done!

引数で不快に感じる場合, 感じる快適な主張ではないことを説明しても大丈夫です。. しかし, それらに反対する、または他の彼らは、彼らの言うことに同意すると思うかもしれない人々 に伝えることを学ぶ必要があります。.

If you feel uncomfortable in an argument, it is okay to explain that you do not feel comfortable arguing. However, you may need to learn to tell people that you disagree with them or else they might think you agree with what they say.

ユーモア

Humor

新しいカルチャを調整するときの非常に難しいことができるコミュニケーションの 1 つの部分、ユーモア. 周りの人が理解していない冗談を作る可能性があります。. 誰かがあなたを理解していない冗談を作る可能性がありますまたは. ユーモアは文化なので, 冗談を理解する場合でも時々, あなたは、それはおかしいと思うかもしれない.

One part of communication that can be very hard when you are adjusting to a new culture is humor. You might make a joke that people around do not understand. Or someone might make a joke that you do not understand. Since humor is cultural, sometimes even if you understand the joke, you might not think it is funny.

ジョーク

Jokes

多くのアメリカ人がジョークを言うような. たまに, ジョークは面白いことができるし、誰もが笑う. たまに, ジョークは攻撃することができます。. 例えば, 誰かは人種や性別に基づく冗談を言うかもしれない. これらの人々 やジョークが政治的に正しくないです。! 場合は、不快にさせること冗談を言う人, それ、不快、または無礼とその種の任意のより多くのジョークを言うように頼むことを丁寧に言うことができます。.

Many Americans like to tell jokes. Sometimes, jokes can be funny and everyone laughs. Sometimes, jokes can be offensive. For example, someone might tell a joke based on race or gender. These people and jokes are not politically correct! If someone tells a joke that offends you, you can politely say you find it offensive or disrespectful and ask them not to tell you any more jokes of that kind.

風刺

Satire

Freedom of speech is protected by the United States Constitution. このため, the American media can make jokes about things that people in other countries may not joke about. 例えば, there are some US newspapers that are “冗談” 新聞 – 彼らは風刺的な面白いニュースを書く, 真実ではないが、. 例えば, アメリカの風刺的な新聞紙と呼ばれる、 タマネギ 北朝鮮の大統領についての話を書いてください。. 彼は世界で最もハンサムな男を選ばれたという. 北朝鮮と中国の一部の人々 は、話が本当だったと思った. 物語はちょうど冗談だったが、.

Freedom of speech is protected by the United States Constitution. Because of this, the American media can make jokes about things that people in other countries may not joke about. For example, there are some US newspapers that are “joke” newspapers – they write news that is satirical or funny, but not true. For example, a US satirical newspaper paper called the Onion wrote a story about the President of North Korea. They said he was voted the most handsome man in the world. Some people in North Korea and China thought the story was true. But the story was just a joke.

コメディー

Comedies

アメリカで, some people like to watch comedies on television. They might also like to watch professional comedians on TV or in theaters and clubs. たまに, American comedies and comedians can be offensive.

In the USA, some people like to watch comedies on television. They might also like to watch professional comedians on TV or in theaters and clubs. Sometimes, American comedies and comedians can be offensive.

いたずら

Pranks

一部のアメリカ人のようにお互いを騙そうとして. アメリカで, エイプリルフールと呼ばれる休日があります。’ 日. それは 4 月の最初の日には. この日, 多くの人々 のトリックを再生しようとするような. 例えば, 仕事で誰かに何かが真でないときを信じてなります。. 人々 がこれらの冗談を呼び出す “いたずら” または “あなたの足を引っ張る。”

Some Americans like to trick each other. In America, there is a holiday called April Fools’ Day. It is on the first day of April. On this day, many people like to try to play tricks. For example, someone at work might make you believe something is true when it is not. People call these jokes “pranks” or “pulling your leg.”

契約と契約

Contracts and agreements

米国で, written contracts and verbal agreements are important.

In the US, written contracts and verbal agreements are important.

契約は通常口頭. 例えば, 誰かが何かをあなたとあなたの言うはいまたは no を求める. これは契約です。. アメリカで, 口頭契約は一般に非常に真剣に取られて. たまに, 口頭で合意をするとき, 手を振ることも. あなたは両方の契約を満たすために行くシンボルは、握手.

Agreements are typically verbal. For example, someone may ask you to do something and you say yes or no. This is an agreement. In America, verbal agreements are generally taken very seriously. Sometimes, when you make a verbal agreement, you may also shake hands. Shaking hands is a symbol that you are both going to fulfill the agreement.

One problem with verbal agreements is that sometimes people can misunderstand. 例えば, you may make a verbal agreement with someone that you will meet them at 5 pm that day. だがしかし, 多分彼らは誤解し、次の日を意味すると思った.

One problem with verbal agreements is that sometimes people can misunderstand. For example, you may make a verbal agreement with someone that you will meet them at 5 pm that day. But, maybe they misunderstood and thought you meant the next day.

何かに同意する場合, アメリカ人もその契約を達成するか、契約を完了ことはできません知っているようにすることが重要です。. This is true even for something small. 例えば, 誰かがお昼に表示されたら [はい] と答えた場合, ランチに行くべきか、またはそれらを呼び出し、昼食の時間前に来ることができなければそれらを教えてください。.

If you agree to something, it is important to Americans that you either fulfill that agreement or that you let them know you can’t complete the agreement. This is true even for something small. For example, if someone asks you to have lunch and you say yes, you should either go to lunch or you should call them and tell them you can’t come before it is time for the lunch.

契約、契約をどのような 2 つの状態を書かれて (以上) 人々 に同意します。. リースに署名するアパートに移動すると. ジョブを開始します。, 雇用契約書を受け取ることがあります。. クレジット カードで車を購入する場合, ローン契約に署名します。. これらのすべてが契約.

Contracts are written agreements that state what two (or more) people agree to. When you move into an apartment you sign a lease. When you start a job, you may receive an employment contract. If you buy a car on credit, you might sign a loan agreement. All of these are contracts.

契約を締結する場合, おそらくその契約の履行する法的義務がある場合. 慎重にそれを読むことが大切です。. 英語で契約がある場合, それを翻訳の助けを求める場合します。. 簡単な契約, you can ask a friend or you can メールでお問い合わせ and we will try to help you understand the contract. それはお金にかかわる場合, 作業, またはリーガル サービス, プロの翻訳者を使用するか、ケース ワーカーに助言を求める場合します。.

If you sign a contract, you probably have a legal obligation to fulfill that contract. So it is very important that you read it carefully. If the contract is in English, you may want to ask for help translating it. For a simple contract, you can ask a friend or you can email us and we will try to help you understand the contract. If it concerns money, work, or legal services, you may want to use a professional translator or ask your caseworker for advice.

これらは、事実ではないアメリカ文化についての一般化, just ideas to help you better understand why an American may be acting a way that is different to what you are used to. American ways and culture are not better or worse than other ways – just different.

These are generalizations about American culture – not facts, just ideas to help you better understand why an American may be acting a way that is different to what you are used to. American ways and culture are not better or worse than other ways – just different.

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