Kev sib txuas lus
Kev sib txuas lus nrog cov neeg los ntawm ib tug txawv kab lis kev cai yog ib qho loj kev sib tw rau txhua tus neeg uas tau puas tau nyob hauv ib lub teb chaws tshiab. Raws li ib tug neeg tawg rog, koj tau raug yuam kom khiav tawm koj lub teb chaws, thiab koj yuav tsum paub yuav ua li cas rau kev sib txuas lus zoo nyob rau hauv lub tebchaws United States. Ntawm no yog tej yam yuav tau nco ntsoov txog tus ntoo khaub lig-kev cai sib txuas lus.
Communication with people from a different culture is a major challenge for anyone who has ever lived in a new country. As a refugee, you have been forced to leave your country, and you need to learn how to communicate well in the United States. Here are some things to remember about cross-cultural communication.
tsis to taub
Ib tug ntawm cov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws uas koj yuav ua li cas thaum koj sib txuas lus ntoo khaub lig-kev lis kev cai yog yuav tsum nco ntsoov tias txhua yam teeb meem uas koj muaj tej zaum yuav zoo yuav tshwm sim los ntawm kev cai sib txawv. Ua kom zoo tshaj yuav tsum tau zoo - yog hais tias ib tug neeg zoo nkaus li tsis paub los yog txhais li cas, nug koj tus kheej yog hais tias nws yog tej zaum vim muaj ib tug kev cai sib txawv es tsis txhob ntawm piv txwv tias yog lawv tsis zoo.
One of the most important things you can do when you are communicating cross-culturally is to remember that any problems you have may well be caused by cultural differences. Try your best to be positive – if someone appears rude or mean, ask yourself if it is perhaps due to a cultural difference instead of assuming they are not nice.
Yog hais tias koj tsis to taub ib yam dab tsi uas yog hais rau koj, nug tus neeg kom rov hais dua li cas lawv hais tias. Los yog nug lawv hais tias nws rov ntau tsuas. Tsis txhob ntshai mus kom nug.
If you don’t understand something that is said to you, ask the person to repeat what they said. Or ask them to say it again more simply. Do not be afraid to keep asking.
sensitive ntsiab lus
Feem ntau cov neeg Asmeskas tsis nyiam tham txog lawv cov luj, lawv lub hnub nyoog, los yog ntau npaum li cas nyiaj lawv ua. Yog hais tias koj hais ib yam dab tsi txog ib tug neeg tus luj, hnub nyoog li cas lawv yog, los yog yuav ua li cas nplua nuj los yog txom nyem lawv yog, tej zaum lawv yuav chim siab.
Most Americans do not like to talk about their weight, their age, or how much money they make. If you say something about someone’s weight, how old they are, or how rich or poor they are, they might be upset.
Neeg kuj yuav tsis xav qhia rau koj qhov chaw uas lawv yuav mus los yog lawv nyob qhov twg. Yog hais tias koj thov kom ib tug neeg, “Qhov twg yog koj yuav mus?” tej zaum lawv yuav xav tias koj muaj ib tug phem tswv yim.
People also may not want to tell you where they are going or where they live. If you ask someone, “Where are you going?” they may think you have a bad intention.
Soj ntsuam tau pom muaj yog ib co ntsiab lus uas yog yooj yim los tham txog yam tsis tau muaj ib tug kev sib txuas lus teeb meem. Common chaw nyob haiv neeg yog cov me nyuam thiab cov kev ua si. Yog hais tias koj muaj ib lub sij hawm hais lus rau ib tug neeg, koj yuav tau sim los tham txog cov ntsiab lus.
Researchers have found there are some topics that are easier to talk about without having a communication problem. Common areas across cultures are children and sports. If you are having a hard time talking to someone, you can try to talk about these topics.
Thov thiab ua tsaug rau koj
Please and thank you
Lus Askiv raws li ib tug thib ob hom lus
English as a second language
Kev tshawb fawb qhia ib tug ntawm qhov zoo tshaj plaws txoj kev mus kawm ib hom lus tshiab yog mus raus koj tus kheej nyob rau hauv nws thiab mus mloog nws thawj. Sim mloog thiab xyaum lus Askiv ntau li ntau raws li koj tau. hais, los yog hais tias tej yam uas raug, yog ib tug ntawm cov feem ntau nyuaj qhov chaw ntawm kev kawm ib hom lus tshiab. Koj laus thiab cov uas lus uas koj hais txog kuj muaj teeb meem. Tej zaum koj yuav xav tias tag kev cia siab vim hais tias koj yog hais tias ib yam dab tsi kom, tab sis Americans yuav tsis to taub koj. Tsis yog txhua txhua tus neeg Mis Kas yog siv rau txawv teb chaws accents.
Research shows one of the best ways to learn a new language is to immerse yourself in it and to listen to it first. Try to listen and practice English as much as you can. Pronunciation, or saying things correctly, is one of the most difficult parts of learning a new language. Your tone and which words you emphasize also matter. You might feel frustrated because you are saying something correctly, but Americans cannot understand you. Not all Americans are used to foreign accents.
ntsiag to kev sib txuas lus
Thaum peb nyob rau hauv ib tug sib tham nrog lwm tus neeg, peb sib txuas lus nyob rau hauv ob qho tseem ceeb txoj kev: siv cov lus thiab nrog nonverbal kev coj cwj pwm. Ntsiag to cwj pwm yog txoj kev uas peb siv peb lub cev rau kev sib txuas lus. Nws muaj xws li lub ntsej muag kab zauv, gestures, qhov muag ntsia, cwjpwm ntawm lub cev thiab lub suab.
When we are in a conversation with other people, we communicate in two important ways: using words and with nonverbal behavior. Nonverbal behavior is the way we use our body to communicate. It includes facial expressions, gestures, eye contact, posture and tone of voice.
Ib txhia neeg xav hais tias nonverbal kev sib txuas lus yog tseem ceeb tshaj cov lus tiag tiag, peb yuav hais. Nws yuav pab cov neeg txiav txim siab hais tias lawv nyiam thiab kev cia siab rau lwm tus neeg.
Some people think nonverbal communication is more important than the actual words we say. It helps people decide if they like and trust others.
Txawv haiv neeg siv ntau hom nonverbal kev sib txuas lus. Ntawm no yog ib co ntawm cov kev Americans siv nonverbal kev sib txuas lus:
Different cultures use different types of nonverbal communication. Here are some of the ways Americans use nonverbal communication:
qhov muag hu
ntawm lub ntsej muag kab zauv
cwjpwm ntawm lub cev
cov lus sib cav
Cov neeg nyob rau hauv lub tebchaws United States raug cob qhia kom “sawv ntsug” rau lawv cov kev ntseeg. Qhov no txhais tau tias yog ib tug neeg tsis pom zoo nrog koj, lawv tej zaum yuav cam nrog koj mus sim los ua pov thawj lawv taw tes. Qhov no yuav ua tau heev tsis tau yog koj tuaj los ntawm ib tug kab lis kev cai uas tseem ceeb “txuag ntsej muag.” Nyob rau hauv tej lub teb chaws, tau txais mus rau hauv ib tug sib cav yuav txhais hais tias koj tau poob ntsej muag.
People in the United States are taught to “stand up” for their beliefs. This means if someone disagrees with you, they may argue with you to try to prove their point. This can be very uncomfortable if you come from a culture that values “saving face.” In some countries, getting into an argument may mean you have lost face.
Americans cam tsis tawm ntawm kev npau taws los yog mus tua, tab sis qhia koj vim li cas lawv ntseeg tias lawv muaj tseeb. Arguing yog feem ntau siv tau raws li ib feem ntawm kev sib tham, tshwj tsis yog tias koj yog hais lus heev nrov nrov (screaming) los yog siv phem los yog txhob txwm lus. Cov menyuam kawm ntawv muaj cai thiab txawm xav kom tsis pom zoo nrog lawv cov xib fwb. Cov me nyuam tej zaum yuav cam nrog lawv niam lawv txiv. Neeg ua haujlwm yuav tsis pom zoo nrog lawv bosses, tab sis lolus.
Americans argue not out of anger or to fight, but to show you why they believe they are correct. Arguing is generally acceptable as part of conversation, unless you are speaking very loudly (screaming) or using bad or rude language. Students are allowed and even encouraged to disagree with their teachers. Children may argue with their parents. Workers can disagree with their bosses, but politely.
Tej zaum, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog nyob rau hauv US txoj, cov neeg cam thawj npaum li ntawd hais tias tsis muaj dab tsi yuav tau ua. Ib tug nto moo xib fwb, Deborah Tannen, criticizes Americans rau nce txhua yam uas xav tau kev pab yuav tau txais ua raws li ib tug sib cav ntawm ob sab. Yog hais tias koj xav tsis zoo nyob rau hauv ib tug sib cav, nws yog li cas los mus piav qhia hais tias koj twb tsis nyiam arguing. Txawm li cas los, tej zaum koj yuav tsum tau mus kawm los qhia rau cov neeg uas koj tsis pom zoo nrog lawv los yog lwm tus tej zaum lawv yuav xav tias koj pom zoo nrog lawv hais dab tsi.
Sometimes, especially in US politics, people argue so much that nothing can get done. One famous professor, Deborah Tannen, criticizes Americans for approaching anything that needs to get done as an argument between two sides. If you feel uncomfortable in an argument, it is okay to explain that you do not feel comfortable arguing. However, you may need to learn to tell people that you disagree with them or else they might think you agree with what they say.
Ib feem ntawm kev sib txuas lus uas yuav nyuaj heev thaum koj kho mus rau ib tug tshiab kab lis kev cai yog kev lom zem. Tej zaum koj yuav ua ib tug dag hais tias cov neeg nyob ib ncig ntawm tsis to taub. Los yog ib tug neeg tej zaum yuav ua ib tug dag hais tias koj tsis to taub. Txij li thaum kev lom zem yog kev cai, tej zaum txawm hais tias koj to taub qhov cuav xwm, tej zaum koj yuav tsis xav tias nws yog funny.
One part of communication that can be very hard when you are adjusting to a new culture is humor. You might make a joke that people around do not understand. Or someone might make a joke that you do not understand. Since humor is cultural, sometimes even if you understand the joke, you might not think it is funny.
Lus tso dag
Kev sib cog lus thiab ntawv cog lus
Contracts and agreements
Nyob rau hauv lub US, sau ntawv cog lus thiab hais lus cog lus yog ib qho tseem ceeb raws li txoj cai thiab nyob rau hauv kev sib raug zoo.
In the US, written contracts and verbal agreements are important legally and in relationships.
Agreements yog feem ntau hais lus. Piv txwv li, ib tug neeg yuav hais kom koj ua ib yam dab tsi thiab koj hais tias yog los yog tsis muaj. Qhov no yog ib qho kev pom zoo. Nyob rau hauv America, hais lus cog lus feem ntau yog coj heev tiag. Tej zaum, thaum koj ua ib tug hais lus daim ntawv cog lus, tej zaum koj yuav co tes. Tuav ob txhais tes yog ib lub cim hais tias koj muaj ob mus rau kev txaus siab qhov kev pom zoo.
Agreements are typically verbal. For example, someone may ask you to do something and you say yes or no. This is an agreement. In America, verbal agreements are generally taken very seriously. Sometimes, when you make a verbal agreement, you may also shake hands. Shaking hands is a symbol that you are both going to fulfill the agreement.
Ib qhov teeb meem nrog hais lus cog lus yog hais tias tej zaum cov neeg yuav tsis to taub yuam. Piv txwv li, tej zaum koj yuav ua ib tug hais lus daim ntawv cog lus nrog ib tug neeg uas koj yuav ntsib lawv nyob rau 5 pm hnub ntawd. Tab sis, tej zaum lawv tsis to taub thiab xav tias koj yog tus nyob rau hnub tom ntej.
One problem with verbal agreements is that sometimes the people can misunderstand. For example, you may make a verbal agreement with someone that you will meet them at 5pm that day. But, maybe they misunderstood and thought you meant the next day.
Yog hais tias koj pom zoo rau ib yam dab tsi, nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb rau cov neeg Asmeskas uas koj yog txaus siab uas daim ntawv cog lus los yog hais tias koj qhia rau lawv paub tias koj yuav tsis ua kom tiav qhov kev pom zoo. Txawm ib yam dab tsi me me. Piv txwv li, Yog hais tias ib tug neeg hais kom koj muaj noj su thiab koj hais tias yog, koj yuav tsum yog mus rau noj su los yog koj yuav tsum tau hu rau lawv thiab qhia rau lawv koj yuav tsis tuaj ua ntej nws yog lub sij hawm rau noj su.
If you agree to something, it is important to Americans that you either fulfill that agreement or that you let them know you can’t complete the agreement. Even for something small. For example, if someone asks you to have lunch and you say yes, you should either go to lunch or you should call them and tell them you can’t come before it is time for the lunch.
Kev sib cog lus yog sau ntawv cog lus uas qhia ob (los yog ntau tshaj) cov neeg pom zoo rau. Thaum koj tsiv mus nyob rau hauv ib chav tsev koj kos npe rau ib daim ntawv xauj tsev. Thaum uas koj pib ib txoj hauj lwm, tej zaum koj yuav tau txais ib tug kev ua hauj lwm daim ntawv cog lus. Yog hais tias koj yuav ib lub tsheb nyob rau hauv credit, tej zaum koj yuav tau kos npe rau ib tug cov nyiaj txais daim ntawv cog lus. Tag nrho cov no yog cov ntawv cog lus.
Contracts are written agreements that state what two (or more) people agree to. When you move into an apartment you sign a lease. When you start a job, you may receive an employment contract. If you buy a car on credit, you might sign a loan agreement. All of these are contracts.
Yog hais tias koj kos npe rau ib daim ntawv cog lus, tej zaum koj muaj ib tug kev cai lij choj yuav tsum ua raws li daim ntawv cog lus. Yog li ntawd nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb uas koj nyeem kom zoo zoo. Yog hais tias daim ntawv cog lus yog nyob rau hauv lus Askiv, tej zaum koj yuav xav thov kev pab txhais lus rau nws. Rau ib tug yooj yim daim ntawv cog lus, koj yuav tau nug ib tug phooj ywg los yog koj yuav email email@example.com thiab peb yuav sim mus pab koj to taub daim ntawv cog lus. Yog hais tias nws kev txhawj xeeb nyiaj, ua hauj lwm, los yog kev cai lij choj, tej zaum koj yuav xav siv ib tug kws txhais lus los yog nug koj tus neeg tuav ntaub ntawv rau kev pab tswv yim.
If you sign a contract, you probably have a legal obligation to fulfill that contract. So it is very important that you read it carefully. If the contract is in English, you may want to ask for help translating it. For a simple contract, you can ask a friend or you can email firstname.lastname@example.org and we will try to help you understand the contract. If it concerns money, work, or legal services, you may want to use a professional translator or ask your caseworker for advice.