Communication in the USA

Turanci mababu English

Communication is how we share information and ideas with other people. We do it by speaking, by writing, and even with our hands, fuska, and body. In a new country, we need to learn new ways of communicating. Here are some tips to help you communicate in the USA.

Communication is how we share information and ideas with other people. We do it by speaking, by writing, and even with our hands, face, and body. In a new country, we need to learn new ways of communicating. Here are some tips to help you communicate in the USA.

communication between cultures

communication between cultures

During your first months in the USA, there will be many times when you do not understand people and situations. This is very difficult, but it is also normal. Try not to be discouraged! Communication will get better with time. You will get used to the new culture and start to understand the language.

During your first months in the USA, there will be many times when you do not understand people and situations. This is very difficult, but it is also normal. Try not to be discouraged! Communication will get better with time. You will get used to the new culture and start to understand the language.

Harshe

Language

When you arrive in a new country, not knowing the language makes everything difficult. Here are some useful things to know about communicating with Americans.

When you arrive in a new country, not knowing the language makes everything difficult. Here are some useful things to know about communicating with Americans.

rashin fahimtar juna

Misunderstandings

A lokacin farko watanni da dama kai ne a Amurka, za ka yiwuwa rashin fahimtar kuri'a na abubuwa. Wannan al'ada da kuma ba laifin ka. Gwada mafi kyau ga zama tabbatacce - idan wani bayyana m ko nufin, remind yourself that it may be because of a cultural difference. Do not assume they are a bad or rude person.

During the first several months you are in the United States, you will probably misunderstand lots of things. This is normal and not your fault. Try your best to be positive – if someone appears rude or mean, remind yourself that it may be because of a cultural difference. Do not assume they are a bad or rude person.

Idan ba ka fahimci wani abu da aka ce ku, tambayi mutum zuwa maimaita abin da suka ce. Ko ka tambaye su, a ce da shi kuma mafi kawai. Kada ka ji tsoro, ci gaba da roƙa.

If you don’t understand something that is said to you, ask the person to repeat what they said. Or ask them to say it again more simply. Do not be afraid to keep asking.

m batutuwa

Sensitive topics

Amirkawa, da dama ne m game da wasu batutuwa. Misali:

Many Americans are sensitive about certain subjects. For example:

They may be “siyasa daidai.” Being politically correct means trying not to say things that will offend a particular group of people. Misali, many Americans do not tolerate racist or sexist jokes. Wannan correctness taimaka wajen haifar da wani m jama'a. But it will cause problems if others are disrespectful.

They may be “politically correct.” Being politically correct means trying not to say things that will offend a particular group of people. For example, many Americans do not tolerate racist or sexist jokes. This correctness helps to create an inclusive society. But it will cause problems if others are disrespectful.

Mai Amirkawa ba na son magana game da su nauyi, su shekaru, ko nawa kudi suka yi. Idan ka ce wani abu game da wani nauyin zarra, yadda tsohon su ne, ko yadda za mawadãci kõ matalauci su ne, su iya zama kau da.

Most Americans do not like to talk about their weight, their age, or how much money they make. If you say something about someone’s weight, how old they are, or how rich or poor they are, they might be upset.

Mutane ma ba so in gaya maka inda za su tafi, ko inda suke zaune. Idan ka tambaye wani, “Ina za ka?” su iya tunanin kana da wani mummunan nufi.

People also may not want to tell you where they are going or where they live. If you ask someone, “Where are you going?” they may think you have a bad intention.

There are some topics that are easier to talk about without having a communication problem. Common yankunan fadin al'adu ne yara da kuma wasanni. Idan kana da ciwon wuya lokacin magana da wani, talk about these topics!

There are some topics that are easier to talk about without having a communication problem. Common areas across cultures are children and sports. If you are having a hard time talking to someone, talk about these topics!

kananan magana

Small talk

Most Americans will talk “kananan magana” da kai. Sunã tambayar yadda za ka ko magana game da yanayin. This is considered polite. Idan wani ya ce, “Ta yaya ne za ka?” da sauran mutum kusan ko da yaushe ya ce,”Good,” “lafiya,” ko “KO,” har ma idan ya ko ta yi baƙin ciki ko unwell.

Most Americans will talk “small talk” with you. They will ask how you are or talk about the weather. This is considered polite. If someone says, “How are you?” the other person almost always says,”Good,” “Fine,” or “OK,” even if he or she is sad or unwell.

Faranta da kuma na gode

Please and thank you

A USA, mutane ce “Don Allah” a lokacin da suka nemi wani abu da kuma “na gode” a lokacin da suka sami wani abu ko wani taimaka musu. Amirkawa ayan gode wasu ma ga kananan abubuwa. Idan wani ya kofa bude muku, shi ne m to ka ce na gode. Idan wani ya ba ka kyauta, ya kamata ka kuma ka ce na gode.

In the USA, people say “please” when they ask for something and “thank you” when they receive something or someone helps them. Americans tend to thank others even for little things. If someone holds a door open for you, it is polite to say thank you. If someone gives you a gift, you should also say thank you.

Turanci matsayin harshe na biyu

English as a second language

Learning English is one of the most important things you can do to help you adjust to life in the USA. If you do not speak much English, za ka iya samun free azuzuwan online da kuma a cikin al'umma. You can find ways to learn English online or in your local community.

Learning English is one of the most important things you can do to help you adjust to life in the USA. If you do not speak much English, you can find free classes online and in your community. You can find ways to learn English online or in your local community.

One of the best ways to learn a new language is to immerse yourself in it and to listen to it a lot. Ka yi kokarin saurare da kuma gudanar da aiki da Turanci kamar yadda za ku iya. pronunciation, ko cewa abubuwa daidai, yana daya daga cikin mafi wuya sassa na koyon wani sabon harshe. Your sautin kuma wanda kalmomi ku jaddada ma al'amarin. Za ka iya jin takaici saboda kana cewa wani abu daidai, amma Amurkawa ba zai iya gane ku. Ba kuma dukan Amirkawa suna amfani da su waje wasulla.

One of the best ways to learn a new language is to immerse yourself in it and to listen to it a lot. Try to listen and practice English as much as you can. Pronunciation, or saying things correctly, is one of the most difficult parts of learning a new language. Your tone and which words you emphasize also matter. You might feel frustrated because you are saying something correctly, but Americans cannot understand you. Not all Americans are used to foreign accents.

Nonverbal sadarwa

Nonverbal communication

A lokacin da muke cikin wani zance da sauran mutane, mu sadarwa a biyu muhimmanci hanyoyi: verbally (using words) and nonverbally. Nonverbal communication means the way we use our body to communicate. It includes:

When we are in a conversation with other people, we communicate in two important ways: verbally (using words) and nonverbally. Nonverbal communication means the way we use our body to communicate. It includes:

  • facial expressions
  • hand gestures
  • ido lamba
  • posture (how we stand or sit)
  • tone of voice
  • facial expressions
  • hand gestures
  • eye contact
  • posture (how we stand or sit)
  • tone of voice

Wasu mutane suna tunanin nonverbal sadarwa ne mafi muhimmanci fiye da ainihin kalmomin da muka ce. Ya taimaka mutane yanke shawara idan suka so, kuma ka dõgara wasu.

Some people think nonverbal communication is more important than the actual words we say. It helps people decide if they like and trust others.

Daban-daban al'adu amfani da daban-daban na nonverbal sadarwa. Ga wasu daga cikin hanyoyin da Amirkawa amfani nonverbal sadarwa:

Different cultures use different types of nonverbal communication. Here are some of the ways Americans use nonverbal communication:

Eye lamba

Eye contact

Mai Amirkawa yi ido lamba a lokacin muhimmanci tattaunawa. Idan ba ka yi ido lamba, people may think you are lying or something is wrong. Mutanen da suka kama kai tsaye a cikin idanunku sukan kyan gani, kamar yadda mafi amintacce, fasaha, da kuma irin. Idan ka zo daga wata al'ada inda mutane ba su duba cikin juna ta idanu, wannan na iya zama da wuya a gare ka ka yi.

Most Americans make eye contact during important conversations. If you do not make eye contact, people may think you are lying or something is wrong. People who look directly into your eyes are often viewed as more trustworthy, intelligent, and kind. If you come from a culture where people do not look into each other’s eyes, this may be very hard for you to do.

Smiling

Smiling

Americans smile a lot to show to be polite and to who that everything is okay. Idan kun haɗu da wani sabon, suna so ne ka murmushi a su.

Americans smile a lot to show to be polite and to who that everything is okay. When you meet someone new, they expect you to smile at them.

hali

Posture

Idan ka tsaya a mike, mutane ayan ba ka fiye da girmamawa.

If you stand up straight, people tend to give you more respect.

Ku taɓa

Touch

Mai Amirkawa girgiza hannun idan sun haɗu da. Wani lokaci mutane za su rungume juna, idan sun riga san juna. Idan ka ji m shan hannu, ba ka da zuwa girgiza hannun.

Most Americans shake hands when they meet. Sometimes people will hug each other if they already know each other. If you feel uncomfortable shaking hands, you do not have to shake hands.

Space

Space

A USA, mutane da karin “sirri sarari.” Wannan yana nufin idan kana magana da wani, su zai yiwuwa tsaya a kalla a kafa daga gare ku.

In the USA, people have more “personal space.” This means if you are talking to someone, they will probably stand at least a foot away from you.

muhawara

Arguments

Mutane a Amurka ana sanar ga “tsaya” ga abin da suka gaskata. Wannan yana nufin idan wani ra'ayi tare da ku, su iya jayayya da kai ga kokarin tabbatar da ma'ana. Wannan na iya zama sosai m idan ka zo daga wani al'adun cewa darajta “ceton fuska.” A wasu ƙasashe, da samun a cikin wani misãli iya nufin ka rasa fuska.

People in the United States are taught to “stand up” for their beliefs. This means if someone disagrees with you, they may argue with you to try to prove their point. This can be very uncomfortable if you come from a culture that values “saving face.” In some countries, getting into an argument may mean you have lost face.

Amirkawa jayayya ba daga fushinsa, ko su yi yaƙi, amma don nuna maka me ya sa suka yi imani su ne daidai. Arguing is generally accepted as part of the conversation, sai dai in kana magana sosai ƙarfi (sauti da) ko ta amfani da kyau ko kuma m harshe. Dalibai ne a yarda da ko da karfafa su saba da malamansu. Yara iya jayayya da iyayensu. Ma'aikata na iya saba da su bosses, amma da ladabi. Wani lokaci, especially in American politics, mutane suna jayayya sosai cewa kome iya samun yi!

Americans argue not out of anger or to fight, but to show you why they believe they are correct. Arguing is generally accepted as part of the conversation, unless you are speaking very loudly (screaming) or using bad or rude language. Students are allowed and even encouraged to disagree with their teachers. Children may argue with their parents. Workers can disagree with their bosses, but politely. Sometimes, especially in American politics, people argue so much that nothing can get done!

Idan ka ji m, a wani misãli ba,, yana da lafiya don bayyana cewa ba ka jin dadi jayayya. Duk da haka, za ka iya bukatar koyo domin su gaya wa mutane cewa ku saba da su ko kuma su iya tunanin ka yarda da abin da suka ce.

If you feel uncomfortable in an argument, it is okay to explain that you do not feel comfortable arguing. However, you may need to learn to tell people that you disagree with them or else they might think you agree with what they say.

Humor

Humor

Daya bangare na sadarwa da za su iya zama da wuya a lokacin da ka ke daidaitawa zuwa wani sabon al'adu ne mutumci. Za ka iya yin wargi da cewa mutanen da ke kewaye gane ba. Ko wani ya iya yin wargi da cewa ba ka fahimta. Tun da ci mutumci ne al'adu, wani lokacin ma idan ka fahimci wargi, ka iya ba zaton shi ne funny.

One part of communication that can be very hard when you are adjusting to a new culture is humor. You might make a joke that people around do not understand. Or someone might make a joke that you do not understand. Since humor is cultural, sometimes even if you understand the joke, you might not think it is funny.

barkwanci

Jokes

Amirkawa, da dama so a gaya barkwanci. Wani lokaci, barkwanci iya zama funny, kuma kowa ya fashe da dariya. Wani lokaci, barkwanci iya zama m. Misali, wani ya iya gaya mai wargi dangane tseren ko jinsi. Wadannan mutane da barkwanci ne ba na siyasa daidai! Idan wani ya gaya mai wargi da cewa ya savawa ku, za ka iya ladabi ce ku sãme shi a m ko m da kuma tambaye su kada su gaya muku wani karin barkwanci na cewa irin.

Many Americans like to tell jokes. Sometimes, jokes can be funny and everyone laughs. Sometimes, jokes can be offensive. For example, someone might tell a joke based on race or gender. These people and jokes are not politically correct! If someone tells a joke that offends you, you can politely say you find it offensive or disrespectful and ask them not to tell you any more jokes of that kind.

satire

Satire

Freedom of speech is protected by the United States Constitution. Saboda wannan, the American media can make jokes about things that people in other countries may not joke about. Misali, there are some US newspapers that are “wargi” jaridu - sun rubuta labarai cewa shi ne satirical ko funny, amma ba gaskiya ba ne. Misali, a US satirical jarida takarda da ake kira Albasa rubuta wani labari game da shugaban kasar na Korea ta Arewa. Suka ce ya aka zabi mafi kyau mutum a duniya. Wasu mutane a Korea ta Arewa da Sin tunani da labarin gaskiya ne. Amma da labarin ne kawai wani wargi.

Freedom of speech is protected by the United States Constitution. Because of this, the American media can make jokes about things that people in other countries may not joke about. For example, there are some US newspapers that are “joke” newspapers – they write news that is satirical or funny, but not true. For example, a US satirical newspaper paper called the Onion wrote a story about the President of North Korea. They said he was voted the most handsome man in the world. Some people in North Korea and China thought the story was true. But the story was just a joke.

comedies

Comedies

A USA, some people like to watch comedies on television. They might also like to watch professional comedians on TV or in theaters and clubs. Wani lokaci, American comedies and comedians can be offensive.

In the USA, some people like to watch comedies on television. They might also like to watch professional comedians on TV or in theaters and clubs. Sometimes, American comedies and comedians can be offensive.

Pranks

Pranks

Wasu Amurkawa son Trick juna. a Amirka, akwai wani biki da ake kira Afrilu wawaye’ rana. Shi ne a ranar farko na Afrilu. A wannan rana, da yawa mutane son kokarin wasa dabaru. Misali, wani a wurin aiki sa ku yi imani da wani abu gaskiya ne a lokacin da shi ba. Mutane kira wadannan barkwanci “pranks” ko “ja da kafa.”

Some Americans like to trick each other. In America, there is a holiday called April Fools’ Day. It is on the first day of April. On this day, many people like to try to play tricks. For example, someone at work might make you believe something is true when it is not. People call these jokes “pranks” or “pulling your leg.”

Kwangilar da yarjejeniyar

Contracts and agreements

A Amurka, written contracts and verbal agreements are important.

In the US, written contracts and verbal agreements are important.

Yarjejeniyoyi ne yawanci fi'ili. Misali, wani zai tambaye ku su yi wani abu da za ka ce i ko a'a. Wannan shi ne wata yarjejeniya. a Amirka, fi'ili yarjejeniyar an kullum dauka ƙwarai da gaske. Wani lokaci, lokacin da ka yi wani fi'ili yarjejeniya, ka iya girgiza hannun. Shan hannu, wata alama ce cewa kana biyu za su cika da yarjejeniyar.

Agreements are typically verbal. For example, someone may ask you to do something and you say yes or no. This is an agreement. In America, verbal agreements are generally taken very seriously. Sometimes, when you make a verbal agreement, you may also shake hands. Shaking hands is a symbol that you are both going to fulfill the agreement.

One problem with verbal agreements is that sometimes people can misunderstand. Misali, you may make a verbal agreement with someone that you will meet them at 5 pm that day. amma, watakila da suka fahimci da kuma tunanin da kake nufi na gaba rana.

One problem with verbal agreements is that sometimes people can misunderstand. For example, you may make a verbal agreement with someone that you will meet them at 5 pm that day. But, maybe they misunderstood and thought you meant the next day.

Idan ka yarda da wani abu, yana da muhimmanci jama'ar Amirka da ka ko dai cika cewa yarjejeniya ko da ka bari su san ba za ka iya kammala yarjejeniya. This is true even for something small. Misali, idan wani ya tambaye ka ka yi abincin rana da kuma ka ce a, ya kamata ka ko dai je abincin rana ko ya kamata ka kira su, kuma ka gaya musu ba za ka iya zo kafin shi ne lokacin da abincin rana.

If you agree to something, it is important to Americans that you either fulfill that agreement or that you let them know you can’t complete the agreement. This is true even for something small. For example, if someone asks you to have lunch and you say yes, you should either go to lunch or you should call them and tell them you can’t come before it is time for the lunch.

Kwangilar da aka rubuta yarjejeniyar da cewa bayyana abin da biyu (ko fiye) mutane yarda da. Lokacin da ka matsar a cikin wani Apartment ka shiga wani haya. A lokacin da ka fara aiki, kana iya karžar wani aikin kwangila. Idan ka saya mota a bashi, za ka iya sa hannu a matsayin aro yarjejeniya. Dukan waɗannan ne kwangilar.

Contracts are written agreements that state what two (or more) people agree to. When you move into an apartment you sign a lease. When you start a job, you may receive an employment contract. If you buy a car on credit, you might sign a loan agreement. All of these are contracts.

Idan ka shiga kwangila, ku yiwuwa da doka wajibi don cika cewa kwangila. Saboda haka yana da muhimmanci sosai cewa kana karanta shi a hankali. Idan kwangila ne a Turanci, kana iya neman taimako fassara shi. Ga wani sauki kwangila, you can ask a friend or you can email da mu and we will try to help you understand the contract. Idan al'amari ya shafi kudi, aiki, ko doka da sabis, kana iya amfani da wani kwararren fassara ko tambaye ka caseworker ga shawara.

If you sign a contract, you probably have a legal obligation to fulfill that contract. So it is very important that you read it carefully. If the contract is in English, you may want to ask for help translating it. For a simple contract, you can ask a friend or you can email us and we will try to help you understand the contract. If it concerns money, work, or legal services, you may want to use a professional translator or ask your caseworker for advice.

Wadannan su ne generalizations game da al'adun {asar Amirka - ba facts, just ideas to help you better understand why an American may be acting a way that is different to what you are used to. American ways and culture are not better or worse than other ways – just different.

These are generalizations about American culture – not facts, just ideas to help you better understand why an American may be acting a way that is different to what you are used to. American ways and culture are not better or worse than other ways – just different.

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